A Practical Guide to Free-Energy Devices Author: Patrick J. Kelly
Chapter 11: Other Devices
Nikola Tesla. Tesla also designed a device for picking up energy from the air. As far as I am aware, it was never patented and I have never seen a specification of its output. Perhaps it was one of Tesla’s failures but personally, I doubt that. It might make a very interesting experiment so see what level of output can be achieved using it. The construction is shown here:
It is essentially, a rectangular cylinder which contains two spherical electrodes like a Wimshurst machine. The cylinder is positioned vertically, so that when the electrodes are powered up with high voltage to create spark discharges, the air inside the cylinder is heated which causes it to rise up the cylinder. The heated air is ionised, so a magnetic field generated by a surrounding electromagnet, causes the charged ions to move to opposite sides of the cylinder. Electrode plates positioned inside the cylinder, provide an electrical path for the excess positive and negative charges to flow together through the load - lighting, heating or motor circuits typically.
On the surface, this system would appear to be less than 100% efficient, in that the amount of power applied to the device to make it operate should be less that the amount of power drawn from it to drive useful loads. I am not sure that this is necessarily so. Firstly, the air already contains charged ions before this device starts to generate more. These naturally occurring ions gain in number when a thunderstorm is likely, even to the extent of giving many people a headache by their presence. These naturally occurring ions will be picked up by this device and without any input power needed to create them, they are capable of providing output power.
Also, the whole earth is immersed in the zero-point energy field. This is seething energy at the quantum level whose effects can be seen even at ‘absolute zero’. This field is made of small random effects which makes it hard to obtain useful energy directly from it. The field needs to be structured before energy can be drawn from it. One way to do this is to align the field with an event which causes coherent waves of energy to radiate outwards as a ‘radiant energy’ wave - something like the ripples caused on the surface of a pond of still water when a large stone is dropped vertically into the water. The ripple ‘waves’ move outwards from the ‘event’ until they reach the bank of the pond. If there was a generator attached to a float in the pond, it would be possible to pick up some energy from the ripples. The same can be done with ‘radiant energy’ waves if you can create them and know how to pick up energy from them.
Radiant energy waves can be formed by very short sharp uni-directional electrical pulses. Pulses less than one hundredth of a second are suitable for this. One way of creating pulses of that type is using a spark gap. In Tesla’s device shown above, sparks are generated continuously. These sparks will generate radiant energy waves radiating out at right angles to the spark. Without a doubt, the vertical cylinder will have a mass of radiant energy shooting up it when it is being operated. This is in addition to the air ions which are being picked up. The only question is whether or not the electrode plate arrangement shown is capable of picking up any of this excess energy. Considering the metallic pickup device used by Edwin Gray to capture radiant energy as described below, it seems highly likely that some of that additional energy is, in fact, picked up and used to power the loads.
It should be noted that Tesla’s device shown above, will generate UV radiation in the same way as any MIG or stick welder does, so care should be exercised to avoid looking at the arc or allowing the UV to shine on your skin, even if the skin is covered by clothing. You can get serious sunburn through thin clothing if it is subjected to strong UV radiation. Also, radio interference is likely to be generated by the arc, so screening should be provided during any tests. WARNING: Tesla accidentally discovered that electric spark discharges in air, ignite and burn atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen, producing 12,000,000 volt waves. The oxygen and nitrogen, both below atomic number 19 are thereby transmuted into alpha and beta charges (stripped helium nuclei with +2 charge each, and electrons with -1 charges each) by the powerful radiation produced, having a voltage potential of 12 Mev. This is almost three times the Mev level of gamma radiation emitted by radium, it may well be the reason why Tesla did not publicise the device shown above, and should you decide to experiment with it, please be aware of the potential hazard of this radiation.
A variation on the above device of Tesla’s is given in the book “Physical Chemistry” by E. A. Moelwyn-Hughes, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1965, page 224. Rutherford and Geiger determined the fact that radium puts out alpha particles at the rate of 34,000,000,000 per second, each having two units of positive charge at 4.5 million electron-volts. This is a staggering amount of energy which ionises the air inside the housing and produces enough power to be capable of replacing the entire Four Corners power complex indefinitely.
The variation of Tesla’s device shown above, supports the lead container with its gram of radium on a strap across the bottom of the housing. The radiation ionises the air and the magnetic field separates the charges and directs them to opposite sides of the housing, to be collected and used via the electrode plates. There does not appear to be any reason why strong permanent magnets should not be used instead of the DC electromagnet shown.
Dr Harold Aspden. Scientists freely acknowledge that more than 80% of the matter and energy in the universe is “dark matter” and “dark energy” where “dark” only means that we cannot readily see that form of matter and energy. The highly respected British scientist Dr Harold Aspden, has been awarded a patent for a system to collect this energy directly. The patent, which is one of several similar patents included in this eBook, is reproduced here:
Patent GB2390941 21st January 2004 Inventor: Dr. Harold Aspden
ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATING APPARATUS
An electric generating device includes two capacitors 1 and 2, each having a pair of concentric electrodes and in-series connection to inductors 3 and 4. Each capacitor has an electrode connected to a high voltage DC source 5 and another connected to a low-voltage or earth terminal 6. An AC Power output may be produced from terminals between each capacitor and inductor or from a transformer where the inductor is the primary winding. Electricity production may be sustained by drawing energy from the vacuum medium surrounding the electrodes.
Field of the Invention
This invention relates to a new and non-conventional means for the generation of electrical power. The energy source is the quantum underworld of space, the aether medium of the vacuum state, long recognised for its ability to allow the storage of electric field energy by reacting as its intrinsic charge is displaced, a process understood by physicists by reference to the research findings of Clerk Maxwell.
Background of the Invention
The current state of the art of electrical power generation does not recognise the possibility of ultimately tapping energy from the aether. Physics is taught on the basis that energy cannot be created or destroyed, inasmuch as it is conserved in all physical processes, though it can be degraded in its usefulness, as by burning of hydrocarbons and conversion into heat which dissipates as by radiation into outer space. The aether as a source or as an absorber of energy is not deemed to serve any specific role in the physics of energy deployment, it having been dismissed from consideration by invoking the notion of 'field energy' without admitting the specific physical reality of something in space that accounts for the properties involved.
Theoretical physicists have, however come to suspect that space devoid of matter is nevertheless a seething sea of activity subject to sporadic energy fluctuations which can create electron-positron pairs that exist momentarily before decaying back into their quantum underworld. Yet those same physicists deny all possibility that this energy resource of space itself can be exploited to provide useful power on a scale large enough to rival the role played by atomic power plants and fossil fuel generating installations.
Curiously, they do subscribe to the belief that one day they may be able to generate power on a viable commercial scale from fusion reactors by processes replicating what they believe sustains the Sun's heat output as hydrogen is transmuted into different atomic forms. In contrast with this rather elusive objective, it having proved beyond reach even after half a century of effort, this invention is based on success in generating power by replicating, not the Sun's onward energy decay, but rather a process akin to that by which the Sun itself was created from energy drawn from the enveloping aether medium.
The invention to be described below has emerged from an in depth theoretical investigation into the properties of the aether and quite independently of any of the well known claims of published record which feature at the fringe of mainstream scientific literature. A recent and very well-presented account of what amounts to a century of relevant energy history is the book 'The Search for Free Energy’ by Keith Tutt, published in 2001 by Simon Schuster (ISBN 0-684-86660-9). Here in this book is a comprehensive background of information concerning the energy devices of several researchers but the references to Nikola Tesla and T. Henry Moray are particularly pertinent to the subject of this invention and, though imposing a limitation on what can be legitimately claimed by this patent application, they serve also as a basis for a very important lesson to those engaging in this field of invention.
The lesson is that it is not sufficient to build and demonstrate something that works, if you do not fully understand why what you have devised actually does work. This is especially the case here where one is claiming a source of energy hitherto unknown. The invention to be described below will, in its broadest sense, appear to be quite similar to what T. Henry Moray is said to have demonstrated in showing that substantial electrical power could seemingly be drawn from the aether using a simple wire antenna strung between two poles.
However, as will be seen, the antenna is not needed and the reason is that the energy source is not the radiant emission by some process involving radio wave propagation through the anther, but rather what can best be described as a phase-lock that couples the apparatus with the quantised motion of electric aether charge. There is a technique, to be described below, by which it is possible to exploit this phase-lock condition by setting up an energy oscillation involving an apparatus component and its enveloping aether, the result being that energy in an immediately useful electrical form is imported into the apparatus from that aether.
Brief Description of the Invention
According; to one aspect of the invention, an electric power delivery circuit comprises two capacitors, each having a pair of electrodes formed by a pair of metal cylinders having concentric axes, each capacitor having an associated inductor series-connected to it to form a capacitor-inductor unit, DC voltage excitation means connected to a parallel combination of the two capacitor-inductor units, whereby to apply between corresponding electrodes of the capacitors a DC bias voltage which primes them with electric charge, and power output terminals, one at each point of connection between a capacitor and its associated inductor, whereby to provide for an AC power output owing to oscillations of electric charge between the two capacitors at the resonant frequency of the capacitor-inductor units.
According to another aspect of the invention, an electric power-delivery circuit comprises two capacitors, each having a pair of electrodes formed by a pair of metal cylinders having concentric axes, each capacitor having an associated inductor series-connected to it to form a capacitor-inductor unit, DC voltage excitation means connected to a parallel combination of the two capacitor-inductor units, whereby to apply between corresponding electrodes of the capacitors, a DC bias voltage which primes them with electric charge, each inductor being the primary winding of an electrical transformer, the secondary winding of which serves to provide an AC power output owing to oscillations of electric charge between the two capacitors at the resonant frequency of the capacitor-inductor units.
According to a feature of the invention the capacitors have no intervening solid or liquid dielectric medium separating their concentric electrodes.
According to another feature of the invention, two inductors are coupled electromagnetically by having a common ferrite core and their primary windings are connected to their associated capacitors in the polarity configuration which assures that, in their mutually resonant state, electric charge is exchanged between the two capacitors.
According to yet another feature of the invention, the central axes of both cylindrical electrode capacitors are mutually parallel.
According to a further feature of the invention, an electrical power delivery system comprises a plurality of these electric power delivery circuits, where the central axes have different angular orientations as between the different circuits.
According to a still further feature of the invention, in such a power delivery system, the difference in angular orientation of the central axes is at least 600.
Brief Description of the Drawings
Fig.1 shows an electrical power generating circuit incorporating two concentric cylindrical capacitors having central axes which are parallel.
Fig.2 shows a modified version of the circuit of Fig.1 with a transformer system providing the inductors and an output winding.
Fig.3 illustrates a mutually inclined capacitor system comprising two pairs of concentric cylindrical capacitors.
Detailed Description of the Invention
The invention draws energy from the aether. To understand why the invention works, one needs to understand the process by which the aether stores energy when an electric field is set up across the dielectric separating two capacitor plates. Moreover, one needs to understand the means by which the aether determines the quantum of action, specifically in the form of the Bohr magneton and the unit of angular momentum linked to Planck's constant.
It is not sufficient to imagine that electric charge in the aether is displaced from a rest position in a background continuum of opposite charge polarity to which it is attracted by a restoring force. Indeed, one must consider such action to be superimposed on a system of charge which has an underlying jitter motion, a quantum theory theme associated with the German physicist Heisenberg (Zitter-bewegung, which has the dictionary meaning 'Circular fluctuation movement, of spin'). When these two factors are combined, and the constraint added of there being a phase-lock which keeps that jitter motion in synchronism as between the charges, one finds that the physical theory involved has some very interesting consequences.
One of these consequences is that a spherical or cylindrical volume of aether, if spinning bodily about a central axis, will acquire a magnetic moment and set up an electric field inside that sphere or cylinder that is directed radially with respect to the spin axis. A summary analysis is presented in the Appendix to this specification, being, in part a quotation from pages 31-33 of a booklet entitled 'The Theory of Gravitation' which the Applicant of this invention, Dr. Harold Aspden, authored in 1959 and duly published early in 1960. The induction of electric charge by 'aether spin' was there shown to give a physical basis, both qualitative and quantitative, for the geomagnetic moment, the property of body Earth of setting up a magnetic field which created magnetic North and South poles at latitudes offset from the geographic poles, with the geomagnetic polar axis precessing slowly around the Earth's spin axis at a rate of several hundred years per revolution. By identifying its source as a rotation of a sphere of aether coextensive with body Earth, a volume of aether relative to which the Earth could have a component of motion even though the aether spin frequency is equal to that of the Earth, this axial tilt of some 17 degrees has a physical explanation. However, that aspect of the aether's role was not seen at the time as offering anything of promise technologically. The physics involved is nevertheless very relevant and directly pertinent to the experiments on which this invention is based, the findings of which would otherwise be quite baffling scientifically.
The applicant has, over the 40 or so years since the theory was first published, given a great deal of consideration to the theoretical implication that, just as aether spin can set up electric charge displacement inside coextensive matter, so the setting up of an electric field directed radially with respect to an s axis can induce aether spin about that axis and with it develop angular momentum. Indeed, in the author's onward publications on this subject, as, for example, 'Physics Unified' published in 1980 by Sabbeton Publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton, England (ISBN 0 85056 0098), it is shown how the onset of the force of gravitation when a disordered aether consolidated into an orderly structured form caused protons to accrete more rapidly than electrons, owing to their higher mutual rate of gravitational acceleration. This created stars with all initial positive charge and the associated aether spin resulted in the stars acquiring their spin states and shedding matter which consolidated into planets which share the angular momentum so generated. The aether with its property of spin as related by its electric charge density according to the formula presented in the Appendix is therefore the key factor if we attempt to account for the creation of the stars which populate our universe.
That same formula, however, is equally valid if applied to the circumstance where a radial electric field is set up between the concentric cylindrical electrodes of a capacitor formed around a hollow dielectric cylinder. It tells us how fast the aether within that dielectric will spin. The related theoretical analysis shows that the quantum phase-lock feature of the aether imports from the external aether world an amount of energy equal to that supplied in setting up aether charge displacement, this imported energy being the dynamic energy corresponding; to the acquired aether angular momentum. Guided by the argument concerning stellar creation one can see that this aether angular momentum can be transferred to matter and this process also has its energy transfer implications.
However, one can wonder what happens if, after setting up a radial electric field in that capacitor having concentric electrodes, the applied voltage is reduced, thereby withdrawing electric field energy from the capacitor. The imported energy present in kinetic energy form as a cylindrical shell of aether spins about the central axis of the capacitor will tend to sustain electric charge displacement. To conserve energy, since the aether phase-lock cannot force the expulsion of energy by obliging the enveloping aether universe to keep in step, this energy can only be shed by augmenting that released electrostatically. In other words, the net result is that an up and down fluctuation of the electric charge condition of the capacitor must give rise to an electric energy output that is, for the lowest dielectric constant (the permittivity of the vacuum), double the input in each cycle of change. One can then envisage an oscillation escalating in energy content powered almost wholly by aether input before one taps into that source of power to draw off energy at a rate consistent with stable operation.
This is, of course, a bewildering prediction that no physicist could imagine as being at all possible and yet, given the relevance of the theoretical argument involved, as applied to the phenomenon of geomagnetism and stellar creation, which are supported by strong evidence in that book 'Physics Unified’, once such a notion is conceived it surely has to be put to the test by experiment. This then, after decades of effort before this realisation has dawned, is the basis on which the Applicant has only now come to appreciate the amazing technological possibilities that lie before us and is asserting by this patent specification that energy can in fact be tapped from the aether on a commercially viable scale.
Given that aether theory indicates that the special form of capacitor described above will, if subject to an oscillatory charge condition, generate an excess of energy, a question to consider is why such a phenomenon has not manifested itself in bench-type experiments performed in numerous electrical laboratories over the past one hundred years. Ostensibly the implication is that the capacitor will exhibit a negative resistance if used with an inductor as a component in what would become a self-resonating circuit. The answer to this may be that if such a phenomenon has occurred it has passed unnoticed or been regarded as spurious or noise-related, being something connected with radio interference etc. Alternatively, and as a function of the size and scale of the apparatus, the effect may have lacked an exciting trigger needed to overcome an energy threshold set by such factors as circuit contact resistance or contact potentials as well as the basic resistance of the inductors which, with the capacitors, form the resonant circuit.
Note that, even for a capacitor of quite large physical dimensions, having regard to its accommodation on top of a laboratory bench, the actual capacitance is necessarily quite small. being of the order of a billionth of a farad. This means that a capacitor charge fluctuation of the order of a volt would only imply energy fluctuations that are of the order of a billionth of a joule per cycle. The situation is quite different if perchance a DC bias voltage of, say, 5,000 volts is applied to the capacitor. Then a small superimposed voltage fluctuation makes the related energy fluctuations very much larger with much greater prospect of an escalating self-resonance being triggered.
With this in mind the applicant perceived a possible prior art link with the experimental claims reported by Dr. Moray who, in 1929 is said (see pages 46-50 of the above-referenced recently-published book by Keith Tutt) to have powered six 100 watt light bulbs plus a standard 575 watt electric flat iron, merely by providing an earth connection and coupling an input lead to an overhead wire antenna. The apparatus involved had no other source of input power but included a special arrangement of capacitors and presumably some kind of high frequency inductor/transformer unit.
In spite of the attention given to the Moray demonstrations, it seems that the secrets involved in the design and construction of the apparatus remain unknown and so cannot feature in the prior art of published record. Nor, indeed, can the anecdotal evidence of Moray's efforts serve to show that the subject invention has been put to prior use. The technology as to how to replicate the Moray device, always assuming it did perform as claimed, has therefore to be rediscovered and, indeed, given that there is reference to his detectors incorporating some special substance which was referred to as ‘Swedish stone', possibly the dielectric he used in his capacitor construction, there is a considerable mystery to unravel. More to the point, however, one is led to believe that Moray was implying that the energy he was tapping was radiant energy drawn from the aether, with that antenna featuring prominently because, without it being connected, the energy output fell to zero. However, as he surely may well himself have known, one just cannot draw power on such a scale from a simple overhead wire strung between two poles and so, without know how, he would have suspected that the energy inflow was coming into his capacitors via the action of that mystery substance he called 'Swedish Stone'.
The applicant here suggests that, based on an insight into the quantum workings of the aether medium as outlined above, the curious discovery demonstrated decades ago by Dr. Moray may have been attributable to setting up an oscillation in a resonant circuit including, a concentric cylindrical electrode capacitor which had a voltage bias of the order of a thousand and more volts fed from a connection to that overhead antenna but drawing no significant current from that antenna other than enough to prime his capacitor with charge and stimulate a high frequency fluctuation which could initiate an escalating circuit oscillation tapping aether energy from the aether spin induced in the capacitor dielectric.
This is speculation, but it is sufficient to justify the Applicant's interest in constructing a capacitor and seeking to verify the assumptions just made. Notwithstanding, the reference alcove to Dr. Moray and the note below concerning Nikola Tesla, what it leads to is new invention by virtue of full disclosure of details of operation and manufacture of something hitherto unknown, the actual means by which to harness a source of energy latent in the aether medium and deemed by those familiar with state of the art knowledge to be beyond man's reach. Furthermore, there are supplementary inventive features of a special nature because of the way the subject invention exchanges energy between two capacitors and also because the optimisation of aether power output from the capacitors is found to be a function of the orientation of the capacitor axes relative to the cosmic background owing to the Earth's rotation.
It seems here appropriate to mention something described by Nikola Tesla in his U.S. Patent No. 685,958. This was filed on 21 March 1901 and granted on 5 November 1901. It was entitled: 'Apparatus for the Utilisation of Radiant Energy'. By installing two metal plates, one high above the ground and the other at ground level, with wires connecting the plates to separate electrodes of a capacitor, it was stated that the capacitor became charged to a very high potential, the energy input being that radiated to Earth from outer space. This may well have motivated the efforts of T. Henry Moray but, so far as this Applicant's invention is concerned, no such input from overhead components is necessary as a quite different energy source is at work, namely the zero-point vacuum energy activity of our quantum underworld.
Referring now to Fig.1, two capacitors 1, 2 formed by concentric cylindrical metal electrodes and having their central axes parallel, form part of a resonant circuit combination by each being series-connected to an inductor 3, 4 having a ferrite core. Their inner electrodes are connected to a high-voltage DC source 5 and their outer electrodes are separately connected through their corresponding inductors to a low-voltage or earth terminal 6. A resistive load device 7 is connected via switch 8 between the junction points of the capacitors and inductors.
In operation, owing to spurious electrical signals induced in the inductors, or to an imposed electrical stimulus provided by means not shown, the priming electric charge of the two capacitors will develop oscillations as charge is exchanged between the two capacitors. There is energy inflow owing to the quantum coupling of electric charge displaced between the concentric electrodes of each capacitor and the quantum activity of the underworld of the enveloping aether. This affords an electrical energy output which is supplied upon closure of switch 8.
Referring to Fig.2, the inductors 3, 4 are shown to have a common ferrite core 9 and to have secondary windings 10,11, which, by transformer action, can supply electrical power output between terminals 12 and 13.
The apparatus of Fig.1 and Fig.2 will, when viewed in side elevation, appear as having a capacitor form with an outer cylindrical electrode within which there is a slightly elongated inner cylindrical electrode, to facilitate the high-voltage connection to that inner electrode. Fig.3 shows, in very simple diagrammatic form, two such arrangements 14, 15, with the central axes of the two pairs of capacitors mutually inclined. There may, however, be three or more such pairs of capacitors, each pair constituting a circuit such as is depicted in Fig.1 or Fig.2.
The reason for configuring multiple capacitor systems, each with its own power output, in a combined manner with the outputs merged to supply an overall energy producing system is that the aether energy output of each capacitor unit is a function of axis orientation. This is because the quantum activity of the aether has its own preferred axis and, as the Earth rotates there is variation of the relative axial orientation in a daily cycle. Also, one needs to cater for systems applying, this invention in a mobile application, which also implies change of orientation and by having; the mutually inclined capacitor axis configurations one can be assured that the potential power output avoids the null situation that can occur if the capacitor axes of a stand-alone unit of Fig.1 or Fig.2 were to be at right angles to the aether quantum spin axis.
The capacitor electrodes can be of thin metal sheet foam and so of light weight and preferably are not spaced apart by any dielectric medium, whether liquid or solid. They need to be held apart by a simple insulating frame structure. The reason is, that the only dielectric medium that is operative in the functioning of the invention is the vacuum medium and to have a normal dielectric present implies more capacitance and so extra current oscillation without extra energy gain per cycle of oscillation. The key factor assuring operation is the need for circuit resistance to be low compared with capacitance that is solely attributable to the vacuum medium combined with the high voltage priming which greatly enhances the power output to weight factor.
The two capacitors of a pair are preferably of identical capacitance and structure, as are the inductors, so that the oscillation period of the two resonant sectors of the circuit is the same. The common ferrite core feature of the Fig.2 configuration assists in this role.
The apparatus will normally be designed to operate at a capacitor frequency of the order of 100 KHz or more, and a voltage of 10,000 V or higher, and so the transformer output of Fig.2 will be preferable with voltage duly adjusted to suit the application. The high frequency AC so produced can then be converted as needed by using the appropriate technology of known form.
Extract from pp. 30-31 of 'The Theory of Gravitation', 1960 printed publication by the Applicant. Note that the earlier pages explained that the aether comprises a system of electric particles in a cubic crystal-like distribution set in a uniform background continuum of opposite charge polarity, the particle system and the continuum both sharing a common circular orbital motion of radius r and the relative velocity between the particles and continuum being the speed of light.
The Effect of Aether Rotation
Consider what happens when a large volume of the aether is rotating bodily. The continuum and particle system rotate together. There will be no resultant magnetic moment unless the particle distribution is disturbed. An evident disturbance is the centrifugal effect arising from aether rotation, but for the angular velocities of magnitude found in the solar system this effect is of negligible consequence. A much more important effect arises from the synchronising interaction between particles in the rotating volume. This requires that the particles shall move about their neutral points at the same angular velocity. Thus if a particle is to have a velocity component V directed in the plane of its orbit, whilst retaining a mean velocity C/2, its speed along its orbit must be of the form C / 2 + V cos(P), where P is the angle subtended by a line joining the particle and the centre of its orbit relative to a fixed reference datum in the inertial frame. To satisfy the above requirement the centre of the orbit cannot be the neutral point. Evidently the particle is distant from this neutral point by r + (2 V r / C) cos(P). As V is much less than C the effect of this is that the particle is moving around a circular orbit whose centre has been displaced a distance 2 V r / C perpendicular to V in the plane of the orbit. If V is much less than w x cos(A), where w is the angular velocity at which the aether rotates, x is the distance of the aether particle from the axis of rotation, and A is the angle of tilt of the axis to the common axial direction of the aether particle system, this displacement distance is 2 (w x r / C) cos(A). Consider a disc-like section of the rotating aether of radius x and unit thickness. Then, the effective charge displacement arising from the effective physical displacement of the particles is 2 pi x s (2 w x r / C) cos(A). The disc has acquired a uniform charge density of 4(w r s / C) cos(A) esu/cc. The polarity of this charge depends upon the direction of rotation of the aether.
When evaluated from the aether data already presented, the charge density is found to be: 4.781 w cos(A) esu/cc. This charge density represents a charge component which rotates with the aether.
Calculation of the Geomagnetic Moment
For Earth, w is 7.26x10-5 rad/sec and A is 23.5o. Thus the Earth’s charge density is, from the above expression, 0.000319 esu/cc. The rotation of this charge gives rise to a magnetic moment of:
(0.000319)(4 pi / 15)w R5 / C where R is here the radius of the Earth's aether.
If R is greater than the Earth’s radius (6.378x108 cm) by a small factor k, the Earth's theoretical magnetic moment becomes (1 + 5k)6.8x1025 emu. This may be compared with the measured value of the Earth's magnetic moment of 8.06x1025 emu.
An upper limit of 0.035 is imposed on k suggesting the Earth's aether terminates at a mean height of about 140 miles above the Earth's surface. This suggests that the ionosphere may be a phenomenon arising at the aether boundary.
1 An electric power delivery circuit comprising two capacitors each having a pair of electrodes formed by a pair of metal cylinders having concentric axes, each capacitor having an associated inductor series- connected to it to form a capacitor-inductor unit, DC voltage excitation means connected to a parallel combination of the two capacitor-inductor units, whereby to apply between corresponding electrodes of the capacitors, a DC bias voltage which primes them with electric charge, and power output terminals, one at each point of connection between a capacitor and its associated inductor, whereby to provide for an AC power output owing to oscillations of electric charge between the two capacitors at the resonant frequency of the capacitor-inductor units.
2 An electric power delivery circuit comprising two capacitors, each having a pair of electrodes formed by a pair of metal cylinders having concentric axes, each capacitor having an associated inductor series-connected to it to form a capacitor-inductor unit, DC voltage excitation means connected to a parallel combination of the two capacitor-inductor units, whereby to apply between corresponding electrodes of the capacitors a DC bias voltage which primes them with electric charge, each inductor being the primary winding of an electrical transformer, the secondary winding of which, serves to provide an AC power output owing to oscillations of electric charge between the two capacitors at the resonant frequency of the capacitor-inductor units.
3 An electric power delivery circuit according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein the capacitors have no intervening solid dielectric medium separating their concentric electrodes.
4 An electric power delivery circuit according; to Claim 1 or 2, wherein the capacitors have no intervening liquid dielectric medium separating their concentric electrodes.
5 An electric power delivery circuit according to Claim I or 2, wherein the two inductors are coupled electromagnetically by having a common ferrite core and their primary windings are connected to their associated capacitors in the polarity configuration which assures that, in their mutually resonant state, electric charge is exchanged between the two capacitors.
6 An electric power delivery circuit according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein the central axes of both cylindrical electrode capacitors are mutually parallel.
7 An electric power delivery system comprising a plurality of electric power delivery circuits according to Claim 6, wherein the central axes have different angular orientations as between the different circuits.
8 An electric power delivery system according to Claim 7, wherein the difference in angular orientation of the central axes is at least 600.
Comment by Dr. Aspden on 19th March 2006:
OUR ENERGY FUTURE
A Message of Vital Importance
My website presents a deliberately concise summary account of something of vital importance to the future of mankind. The world needs a new source of energy, one that is not an exhaustible commodity subject to power-play as between nations. Yes, one can dream and then awake to say this is impossible, but I urge those with the necessary skills to heed what I have to say in my three messages below.
First, however, let me introduce myself. My name is Dr. Harold Aspden. I am retired and elderly but have had a lifelong scientific interest in fundamental physics relevant to the energy theme. My 6-year university education in U.K. was at Manchester University and Cambridge University (Trinity College). My 33-year working career in U.K. comprised 9 years with English Electric and 24 years with IBM. Though having high technical qualifications (see below), being interested in the specialised field of protecting inventions pertaining to electrical engineering, I became a Chartered Patent Agent and later a European Patent Attorney. My last 19 years with IBM were spent as Director of IBM's European Patent Operations. This was followed, in my early retirement, by 9 years as a Visiting Senior Research Fellow at Southampton University and thereafter my scientific interest has been a private pursuit evidenced by my writings as on this and my related websites. My formal qualifications are: B.Sc., Ph.D., C.Eng., F.I.E.E., F.I.Mech.E., C.Phys., M. Inst.P., C. Sci., Wh.Sc.
Message No. 1: Physicists have come to recognise that there exists a quantum underworld alive with energy and permeating all space. However, their related research aims merely at probing experimentally the spectrum of elementary particles that have a transient existence as a product of that energy activity. The reward they seek is recognition should new particles be discovered and, by their properties, reveal connections with other particles that help in formulating a new theory or verifying an existing theory. Sadly, they do not see that quantum underworld as a potential source of energy that we can harness. Nor have they understood how most of the energy shed in creating matter formed the elementary particle which bears the name proton and which, together with the electron, constitutes the hydrogen atom.
There is also a secret they have yet to fathom. It is the effect of creating a radial electric field centred on electrical charge around which that quantum underworld can develop a state of spin that causes it to shed energy. In the presence of a radial electric field set up by an electrically charge body, whatever constitutes that quantum underworld that permeates all space shares a motion like that of sequence dancers who keep in step with one another as they move around the dance floor, a synchronous motion, which, in the presence of that radial electric field can only be held if a secondary motion develops around an axis centred in that radial field.
How else could the Sun spinning about its own axis have come into existence? Here we have gravity attracting hydrogen atoms and pulling them so closely together that ionisation occurs, meaning freeing some electrons from their proton bonding, and so, because the mass of a proton is very much greater than that of the electron, creating a Sun having a body that is positively charged sitting within an outer shell of negative electron charge. Two free protons experience a mutual rate of gravitational acceleration that is 1836 times that experienced by the interaction of two electrons. The body of the Sun, therefore, has a uniform mass density and a uniform positive charge density enclosed within a compensating negative charge at its surface. This is because gravitational compaction forces balance the expansion forces attributable to electrostatic repulsion. It further means the presence of a radial electric field within the body of the Sun and, in turn, owing to the effect of this field on the space medium of the quantum underworld, this induces a state of spin accompanied by release of energy from that medium to feed the kinetic energy of that spin.
In depth analysis of the physics involved, meaning the effect of the resulting radial electric field on that quantum underworld, then allows one to calculate the resulting rate of spin and thereby understand how the solar system was created.
So, if the reader is a physicist, here is the way forward and full guidance on this is to be found on my parallel website or in a new book of mine entitled Creation - The Physical Truth, that will be published in the near future. However, if the reader is not a physicist but has the technological aptitudes of the university-trained electrical engineer then it is Message No. 2 below that warrants attention.
Message No. 2: If it were possible to generate electrical energy by tapping an omnipresent medium it is surely to be expected that the occasional natural phenomenon might already have hinted at this possibility. Consider, therefore, the thunderball, a glowing spherical object sometimes seen, especially following a lightning storm. It appears aethereal in the sense that it can move unimpeded through matter, yet remains an enigma, an unsolved mystery of record in the annals of science. Lightning strokes are high current discharges which, as electrical engineers well know, can develop a 'pinch effect' squeezing the electron-carried current into a filamentary flow within a cylindrical channel of positively charged air. That implies a radial electric field, a pulsating radial electrical field if the discharge surges, a sure recipe for something to happen that could form a miniature Sun, the thunderball. So when we look at a thunderball we are looking at a natural phenomenon that has drawn energy from that quantum underworld of space, energy which is then dissipated, but energy shed by a process we can surely harness, once we understand the physics involved.
Scientists lacking the necessary imagination do not seek to understand how the thunderball is created and so they seldom write about it. So here we have something to think about. It is Nature's message telling us: "Produce a radial electric field, one that pulsates, and you can develop a spin that taps energy from the quantum underworld of space." As engineers, however, we need to be practical and, if possible, we should avoid trying to replicate a phenomenon that involves powerful electric discharges, if there are better ways in which to proceed.
So now I come to my primary theme in this Message No. 2. It is a brief survey of a few of the claims of record that have declared a mysterious energy gain and have features which I see as relevant to what has been said above. In particular I draw attention to the research findings of four different pioneers in what has come to be termed 'The Search for Free Energy', this being the title of a really excellent book by Keith Tutt, published by Simon & Schuster in 2001. Three of these are described in considerable detail in that work. I now ask you to keep in mind my reference to a radial electric field as I mention each of them below and do realise that electrical structures of cylindrical form are a key feature.
Nikola Tesla is famous for his research concerning electromagnetic induction and high voltage solenoidal transformer apparatus (Tesla coils) and he is said to have demonstrated an automobile which derived its power by tapping energy from space. He did not disclose its design details and died leaving us with a mystery. Tesla coils comprise large solenoidal windings concentrically mounted and operate with high voltage pulsations between their cylindrical forms which must produce a pulsating radial electric field between those windings. So, although electromagnetic induction effects are the primary focus of attention, there is here scope for the electrical action described in Message No. 1 above. Tesla may well have stumbled experimentally upon a way of tapping energy from space, but without understanding the true underlying physical process.
Dr. Henry Moray, a pioneer of the 1920-1930 era, demonstrated something which merely needed a kind of antenna, a wire connected from tree tops to earth via electrical apparatus in the boot (trunk) of his automobile. It is said that the latter included several capacitors and that a kilowatt level of power was generated. In this case the automobile merely carried the test apparatus for demonstration at a location remote from a built-up area and any electrical power line interference. No doubt Moray was seeking to follow in Tesla's footsteps by drawing energy from the Earth's electric field, known to be measured in hundreds of volts per metre. It is likely that those capacitors were of Leyden jar type configuration, that is cylindrical in structural form, and that the wire linked to tree tops tapped charge at a kilovolt voltage level. However, the output power claimed could surely not have come from that source. Therefore one must assume that Moray used that treetop voltage input merely to prime the voltage across his capacitor electrodes, whilst incorporating some special feature in the operation of his electrical circuit that gave access to the energy of the quantum underworld. Capacitors having concentric electrodes of cylindrical form will, when charged electrically, have a radial electric field in the space between the electrodes. Several capacitors coupled together could give rise to oscillations of charge as between the capacitors and so lead to a pulsating radial electric field. Yet though demonstrating as possible something that should not be possible, a mysterious inflow of energy able to illuminate several light bulbs, Moray could surely not have understood the true physical process that was feeding energy into his apparatus. Again I see this as relevant to what is stated in Message No. 1.
Stan Meyer demonstrated apparatus that included sets of concentric tubular electrodes enclosed in a cylindrical container filled with water, the electrodes being fed by high voltage (5 KV) pulses. Combustible gas was generated, a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, the burning of which generated far more heat than could be accounted for by the electrical energy input. Energy was being tapped as if from nowhere unless the source was the ambient medium of space itself. Here there was a pulsating radial electric field and electric charge oscillating between different components in Meyer's apparatus. Meyer did not offer any useful explanation as to the physical process underlying what he could demonstrate but persisted in conveying the message that the invention was wonderful and talking about a multiplicity of applications such as powering automobiles, ships etc. This is the project not mentioned in Keith Tutt's book. As for the Tesla and Moray projects Meyer's research was a U.S. based activity. It did, however, attract the interest of a British Admiral, Admiral Tony Griffin who was concerned with the impact of new technology upon the marine industries. Griffin witnessed Meyer's demonstrations and was interested in its development. Indeed an article on the subject mentioning Admiral Griffin and entitled 'Free Energy for Ever' was published in the January 1991 issue of the U.K. magazine Wireless World. The importance of the article was evident from the fact that the Editor of that magazine was the author.
Paul Baumann, a member of a Christian community in a isolated valley high in the Swiss Alps has constructed working free energy devices which have been demonstrated to visitors. The first working prototype was relatively small and included a pair of glass Leyden jars, concentric capacitors. Keith Tutt in his book devotes 30 pages to this subject. The high voltage needed to prime the capacitor operation was generated by a Wimshurst machine driven by the electric power generated. The community has, however, kept design details secret. In spite of such information as is available the underlying physical process governing its operation remains a mystery. Yet I can but feel confident that what I say in my Message No. 1 provides the answer.
Message No. 3: My Message No. 1 has drawn attention to the physical process by which the vast amount of energy needed to create the Sun was extracted from the quantum underworld that permeates all space. My Message No. 2 has drawn attention to the reported efforts of just some of the several energy research pioneers who actually demonstrated apparatus that, contrary to accepted scientific principles, drew energy from a mystery source. My Message No. 3, based on recognising the common physical feature can but be the suggestion that technology for generating our power needs from the hidden underworld of space has to be possible. Accordingly, I will now outline what I see as the basis on which to build the ultimate power generating device that harnesses the physical principles presented in Message No. 1.
Being 78 years of age and no longer having access to university research laboratory facilities, I can but leave it to others to take note and, hopefully, prove me right. If proved right then the world will benefit and the impending energy crisis will be avoided. Hopefully also, the scientific community might then be willing to accept my claim as to how the quantum underworld deploys its energy into proton creation and is active in producing the phenomenon of gravitation. I know of no other theory that has been able to derive theoretically the value 1836.152 of the proton/electron mass ratio. I would like to see that recognised as my contribution to man's knowledge.
Consider a capacitor formed by a pair of concentric cylindrical electrodes, something many of us remember from the school physics laboratory, the Leyden jar. However, the capacitor structure I have in mind is very much larger and has to be operated at a quite high voltage. When that voltage is applied between the electrodes electric charge is displaced in the underlying vacuum medium located between those electrodes. A commensurate amount of electric charge is thereby held in place on those electrodes, a negative polarity charge on one and a positive polarity charge on the other. Given my claim that this is accompanied by 'vacuum spin', aether rotation, which has imported an equal amount of energy owing to a quantum phase-lock as between the charge of the vacuum medium, we have the energy gain we seek to exploit.
The problem, however, is that, with this simple capacitor configuration, the only control parameter available is the reduction of the voltage between the electrodes. This will shed energy within the circuit of the apparatus used, the outflow of electric charge at the voltage difference merely delivering energy equal to that originally supplied by our voltage source. The added energy imported from space is merely dispersed by the 'vacuum spin' slowing down but expanding beyond the bounds of the capacitor electrodes as it conserves its angular momentum. The energy imported from the quantum underworld of space has no way of enhancing the energy output of the capacitor circuit and so is left to dissipate itself and eventually be reabsorbed by that quantum underworld that pervades all space.
However, now consider a concentric electrode capacitor having a third cylindrical electrode intermediate the inner and outer electrodes. Here we have a control parameter other than the voltage between the outermost and innermost electrodes, because we can wonder about the voltage of the central electrode whilst retaining the other voltage difference at a constant high level. In fact, by keeping the latter voltage difference constant but varying the voltage of the intermediate electrode we can decrease the capacitor energy of one half of the overall capacitor as that of the other half decreases. The imported energy shed by one half of the overall capacitor can then contribute to the action that energises the other half and thereby induce oscillations from which energy can be extracted and deployed as a power source.
One needs two such capacitors having their central electrodes coupled through a load circuit in order to capture the 'free energy' inflow and get it to do useful work rather than being dissipated. An inductance in the coupling circuit can determine the oscillation frequency and, since the energy inflow increases with frequency, this should no doubt be well into the kilocycle region. The figure below is a simple schematic diagram of the electrical apparatus that I have in mind.
So my Message No. 3 is what I may describe as a 'thought experiment', one that I cannot verify myself, owing to my age and lack of facilities. I therefore can but record my thoughts and hope that others will prove me right and not wrong.
The capacitors depicted in the figure should have their electrodes spaced so that the capacitance C as between their central and outermost electrodes is the same as the capacitance C between their central and innermost electrodes. Suppose that the outermost electrodes are maintained at a voltage of 20,000V relative to the innermost electrodes. This means that the two central electrodes will be at an intermediate voltage which we expect to be 10,000V in the absence of oscillations. However, as with any ever-active electrical system, there will be minor voltage fluctuations affecting the central electrodes. So we may ask what happens if the voltage of the central electrode of capacitor A decreases owing to electric charge being shed by the inner capacitance C but gained by the outer capacitance C. Think about that for a moment. You will see that it implies reciprocal action in the opposite sense by capacitor B, as current flows from A to B via the central inductor coupling. Yet no net current flows from the 20,000V power source.
Now, of course, common sense backed by our scientific training assures us that this system can but keep its equilibrium without those minor voltage fluctuations building up in some way. Yet, if we heed Message No. 1 and keep in mind Message No. 2, there is a question we must ask. If current does flow through that central link between A and B, one half of A and one half of B both shed energy and so release the imported 'vacuum spin' energy, if such is present. This occurs as other halves of A and B have to gain energy and as angular momentum of the imported 'spin energy' spreads into the other sections of the capacitors. The question then is: "Does that imported energy escape, as it does for the two-electrode capacitor configuration, or might it be retained and so augment the action?"
I submit the answer can only be provided by actual experiment. If the energy does escape then there is nothing further to discuss. However, if some of that energy is captured then we can expect an escalation of oscillations in that inductive link and so can then say that a new source of energy has been discovered. Those oscillations will be a function of the capacitance C and the inductance of the load circuit. Given a high frequency and a high voltage a significant level of power per unit volume of capacitor structure will be produced. If power output at a level commensurate with the claims of Tesla, Moray, Meyer and Baumann results the world's energy future is then assured. A pollution-free energy resource powered by the quantum underworld of space will be at hand wherever we are on body Earth.
Paulo & Alexandra Correa have discovered a way of converting Tesla’s longitudinal waves into ordinary electrical power. They have made US Patent Application 2006/0,082,334 entitled “Energy Conversion Systems” in which they show various ways of achieving this energy-type conversion.
Their techniques range from applying the longitudinal wave energy coming from a Tesla Coil directly to two capacitors via diode rectification and the voltages generated are related directly to actual ground earth potential:
The patent application is in the Appendix so the full details can be examined. A theory of operation is presented based on their many experiments and observations, and the practical form of one of their conversion devices is:
Where the active pick-up plates R and T are encased in a cylinder and are provided with a cone shape to assist the procedure. The patent application contains a good deal of information and is worth reading.
Professor Konstantin Meyl. Another key person in the advancement of current theory and analysis is Professor Konstantin Meyl who has described how field vortices form scalar waves. He has described how electromagnetic waves (transverse waves) and scalar waves (longitudinal waves) both should be represented in wave equations. For comparison, transverse EM waves are best used for broadcast transmissions like television, while longitudinal scalar waves are better for one-to-one communication systems like cell phones.
He also presented the theory that neutrinos are scalar waves moving faster than the speed of light. When moving at the speed of light, they are photons. When a neutrino is slowed to below the speed of light, it becomes an electron. Neutrinos can oscillate between e- and e+. Fusion involves e-, and a lightning flash involves e+. Energy in a vortex acts as a frequency converter. The measurable mixture of frequencies is called noise. Dr. Meyl has pointed out that Tesla measured the resonance of the Earth at 12 Hz. The Schumann resonance of the Earth is 7.8 Hz. Meyl shows how one can calculate the scalar wave of the Earth to be 1.54 times the speed of light. He has developed a model which ties the expansion of the earth to be the result of the earth’s absorption of neutrino energy. The ramifications of this model are that neutrino energy can be tapped. He took this to the next step and postulated that Zero Point Energy is neutrino power – energy from the field; available at anytime, and everywhere present. To show the place of neutrinos in conventional science, Meyl noted that the 2002 Nobel Physics prize was in regards to work on neutrinos. Dr. Meyl’s web site is here and if you access it via Google, a rough translation into English is available.
Nikola Tesla. Tesla performed an experiment in which he applied high-voltage high-frequency alternating current to a pair of parallel metal plates. He found that the ‘space’ between the plates became what he described as “solid-state” exhibiting the attributes of mass, inertia and momentum. That is, the area transformed into a state against which a mechanical push could be exerted. This implied that, using this technique, it should be possible to produce a spaceship drive anywhere in space, if the mechanism for thrusting against the ‘solid-state’ space could be determined. Further experiments convinced Tesla that powerful electromagnetic waves could be used to push against (and pull against) what appears to be ‘empty space’. The drive principle is based on the Hall-effect used in semiconductor magnetic sensors, and is called the magnetohydrodynamic (“MHD”) effect. This might be illustrated like this:
Here, a box is constructed with two metal plates forming opposite sides and two insulating plates holding them in position and surrounding an area of ‘space’. High-frequency, high-voltage alternating current is applied to the metal plates and this creates an electric field “E” acting between the plates as shown in black. A magnetic field “B” is generated by the electrical field. The magnetic field acts at right-angles to the electric field, as shown in blue. These two fields produce a propulsion thrust “F” shown in red in the diagram. This propulsion force is not produced by ejecting any matter out of the box, instead, it is produced by a reaction against the ‘solid-state’ condition of space-time caused by the high-frequency electromagnetic pulsing of that area of space. This is enormously more effective than a jet engine. The thrust increases with the fourth power of the frequency, so if you double the frequency, the effect is sixteen times greater.
To put this into perspective, consider the force being applied against gravity to lift an object into the air. The force pulling the object downwards is gravity and its strength is given by:
F = g x M x m / r2
g is the gravitational constant (6.672 x 10-8 cm3 g-1 s-2)
M is the mass of the first body
m is the mass of the second body and
r is distance between the two centres of mass
The lifting force is given by:
Lorentz Force: Force on an object = Electric force + Magnetic force
F = q x E + q x v x B
q is the charge on the object,
B is the magnetic field,
v is the velocity of the object and
E is the electric field
How do these forces compare? Well, the electromagnetic force is stronger than the gravitational force by a factor of about 2,200,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 times. That number (2.2 x 1039) is too big for anybody to really visualise, so let me put it another way.
If the amount of energy used to mechanically lift an object a distance of one hundredth of an inch (one quarter of a millimetre) off the ground, were used as an electromagnetic lifting force, then that amount of energy would lift the object more than 3,472,222,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles off the ground, or in metric units, more than 5,588,001,700,000,000,000,000,000 kilometres off the ground. This kind of drive is an entirely different kind of animal. This Hall-effect type of drive if used in a spaceship would require only a very small amount of input power to drive the ship at great speeds and over great distances.
As the device shown above operates directly on the space-time field which penetrates all matter, there would appear to be no reason why it should not be used to drive a conventional vehicle by positioning it in a horizontal position rather than the vertical position shown in the diagram. Throttle operation could be by very slight adjustment to the frequency of the AC pulses applied to the metal plates. However, Bill Lyne indicates that horizontal movement is better achieved by producing Tesla’s very short, high-voltage high-frequency DC pulses at the front of the vehicle while at the same time generating very high-voltage high-frequency AC waves at the back of the vehicle. This style of drive is said to pull the vehicle along rather than push it along.
The Unified Field Theory is being searched for by scientists who want to come up with a theory which encompasses the force of gravity with the electromagnetic force. In my opinion, they would have more chance of success in trying to find a needle in a haystack which does not contain a needle since when the entire haystack has been disassembled, it becomes clear that there never was a needle in it. In my opinion, there is no such thing as a “force of gravity”, in fact, there is no such thing as gravity. Find that hard to believe? Well, let me explain.
If when standing, you hold an object a waist level and let it go, it “falls” and lands near your feet. Yes agreed, and yet I suggest that there is no such thing as gravity. If you suspend a pendulum close to a mountain, the pendulum does not hang down vertically but moves slightly towards the mountain. This is said to be because the mountain attracts the pendulum. Sorry Chief, but that just ain’t true - the mountain does not attract the pendulum. The Moon orbits around the Earth which requires a continuous acceleration inwards towards the Earth and this is said to be caused by the attraction of gravity pulling the two bodies of matter together. Well, yes the Moon does orbit the Earth but not because of “the force of gravity”.
The reason why “the force of gravity” is so tiny compared to electromagnetism is because there is no such force at all. Yes, indeed, all of the observed phenomena which are supposed to be gravitational, do exist exactly as seen, but I suggest that there is no such thing as “the force of gravity” and the Unified Field Theory is not needed. Let me explain:
The Zero-Point Energy field exists everywhere in the universe and it flows in every direction equally. It acts like a flow of particles thousands of times more tiny than electrons, and so, it flows through matter. No matter can shield completely from the flow of this energy field. But, a tiny percentage of the flow does happen to collide with the electrons, atoms and molecules of matter as the energy flow moves through matter. The bigger the chunk of matter, the more of the energy flow collides with it. The collisions convert the energy into additional mass, which is why our Sun is not losing mass as rapidly as theory would predict. The situation is like this:
The force of the Zero-Point Energy field is slightly reduced having passed through (and interacted with) the large mass of the Earth. This reduced strength in indicated in the diagram by the light-blue arrows. The incoming Zero-Point Energy field is not reduced in strength in any significant way as the molecules in the atmosphere are not nearly as tightly packed as those in the matter which makes up the Earth itself. The imbalance of these two thrusts causes a net push towards the surface of the Earth.
For clarity, the diagram only shows the field acting in one direction, while in reality, the same situation applies in every possible direction around the planet. When you let an object go and it moves towards the surface of the planet, it is not being pulled down by “the force of gravity”, but instead, the downward push of the Zero-Point Energy field is greater than the upward push of the Zero-Point Energy field which has just passed through the planet. The object moves “downwards” because the push from above is greater than the push from below.
Exactly the same thing applies to cause the effect that a mountain appears to have on a pendulum. In reality, the mountain has no effect on the pendulum, apart perhaps from a minor electrostatic influence. The main effect is caused by the flow of the Zero-Point Energy field:
Here, the (very roughly drawn) mountain, reduces the push of the Zero-Point Energy field which passes through it, due to its interaction with the matter with which it collides on its trip through the mountain. The push of the Zero-Point Energy field on the side of the pendulum is not diminished, so there is a net push towards the mountain and that makes the pendulum move in the direction of the mountain. The effect is not very large, so the pendulum does not move much out of the vertical as the downward push towards the surface of the planet is quite marked, so the pendulum needs to be very near the mountain for this effect to be observed.
This can also be seen in the Casimir Effect where two non-magnetic metal plates, which are not carrying an electrostatic charge, are suspended very close to each other. The plates do not hang straight down but move towards each other. This is the same effect as is caused by a mountain near a stationary pendulum, or plumb-line. Each plate screens out a little of the Zero-Point Energy field which passes directly through both plates, so the second plate gets slightly less of a push:
The result is that between the plates, the horizontal force pushing them is unbalanced. Hang just one plate up and the horizontal Zero-Point Energy (“ZPE”) forces coming from the right exactly balance the ZPE forces coming from the left, and the plate hangs vertically below its point of suspension with the supporting cord (shown in red in the diagram above) hangs vertically. But with two plates as shown, the push from the left is reduced very slightly as it passes through the left hand metal plate. This means that there is a lesser push from left to right on the right hand plate. This causes the plate to move very slightly to the left, until the horizontal pull caused by the red cord not being vertical, just balances the difference in the ZPE thrusts on that plate. So, the right hand plate moves slightly to the left.
The same thing happens with the left hand plate. The ZPE thrust coming from the right is slightly reduced as it passes through the right hand plate, and the left hand plate moves slightly to the right until the angled pull of its supporting cord balances the net thrust on that plate. The overall effect is that the gap at point “A” in the diagram is very slightly larger than the gap at point “B”, though the amount is not nearly as great as suggested by the diagram, which has been deliberately exaggerated to show the effect clearly. There is nothing complicated about this, it is just simple common sense. Remember that the pull of the supporting cord “C” is the exact equivalent of a vertical force “D” along with a horizontal force “E”. Here, the vertical force D exactly matches the weight of the plate, and the horizontal force E exactly matches the unbalanced ZPE force (if they did not match exactly, then the plate would move until they did). The further away from the vertical that the plate moves, the greater the resulting horizontal force caused by the pull of the supporting cord.
Tesla expressed this in a very slightly different way in his Dynamic Theory of Gravity (1897) which states that all bodies emit microwaves whose voltage and frequency are determined by their electrical contents and relative motion. He measured the microwave radiation of the earth as being only a few centimetres in wavelength. He said that the frequency and voltage were influenced by the velocity and mass of the earth, and that its “gravitational” interaction with other bodies, such as the sun, was determined by the interaction of the microwaves between the two bodies.
If you find the concept of producing a driving force through pushing against the space-time continuum to be difficult to accept, then perhaps you should consider the US Patent granted to Boris Volfson on 1st November 2005. The important thing about this patent (which is crammed full of long words) is not whether or not it presents a realistic mechanism for a practical space drive, but the fact that the US Patent Office in the year 2005, granted the patent after what presumably was careful consideration. With that in view, it is hardly possible to consider Tesla to have been totally confused when he designed (and built) his “electric flying machine” which operated by pulling on the space-time field.
Tesla used high voltage at gigahertz frequencies for his electropulsion system. The propulsion of a vehicle powered by a Tesla drive is by the use of an additional AC generator at the back (which stiffens the space-time continuum behind the vehicle) and a DC ‘brush’ generator at the front (which weakens the space-time continuum in front, causing the vehicle to be pulled forwards).
Tesla was very astute. He deduced that ‘empty space’ actually contained:
- Independent carriers which permeate all space and all matter and from which all matter is made. These carry momentum, magnetism, electricity or electromagnetic force, and can be manipulated artificially or by nature.
- ‘Primary Solar Rays’ (starlight) which travel at the speed of light, having frequencies far above X-rays, gamma and UV radiation.
- ‘Cosmic Rays’, particles in space propelled by the Primary Solar Rays.
- X-rays, Gamma rays and UV electromagnetic waves, all of which travel at the speed of light.
- Ordinary visible and Infra-Red electromagnetic waves which travel at the speed of light.
- Rapidly varying electrostatic force of enormous potential, emanating from the earth and other gravitational bodies in space.
When we grasp the actual nature of the universe, it becomes clear that we have a much larger range of opportunities for producing usable energy in large quantities and at minimal cost.
Additional information can be found in Boris Volfson’s US Patent 6,960,975 of November 2005 “Space Vehicle Propelled by the Pressure of Inflationary Vacuum State” which is reproduced in the Appendix.
If you find the thought of generating a gravitational field, difficult to come to terms with, then consider the work of Henry Wallace who was an engineer at General Electric about 25 years ago, and who developed some incredible inventions relating to the underlying physics of the gravitational field. Few people have heard of him or his work. Wallace discovered that a force field, similar or related to the gravitational field, results from the interaction of relatively moving masses. He built machines which demonstrated that this field could be generated by spinning masses of elemental material having an odd number of nucleons -- i.e. a nucleus having a multiple half-integral value of h-bar, the quantum of angular momentum. Wallace used bismuth or copper material for his rotating bodies and "kinnemassic" field concentrators.
Aside from the immense benefits to humanity which could result from a better understanding of the physical nature of gravity, and other fundamental forces, Wallace's inventions could have enormous practical value in countering gravity or converting gravitational force fields into energy for doing useful work. So, why has no one heard of him? One might think that the discoverer of important knowledge such as this would be heralded as a great scientist and nominated for dynamite prizes. Could it be that his invention does not work? Anyone can get the patents. Study them -- Wallace -- General Electric -- detailed descriptions of operations -- measurements of effects -- drawings and models -- it is authentic. If you are handy with tools, then you can even build it yourself. It does work.
Henry was granted two patents in this field: US Patent 3,626,605 -- "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Secondary Gravitational Force Field", Dec 14, 1971 and US Patent 3,626,606 -- "Method and Apparatus for Generating a Dynamic Force Field", Dec 14, 1971. He was also granted US Patent 3,823,570 -- "Heat Pump" (based on technology similar to the above two inventions), July 16, 1973.
Dr Peter Lindemann gave a lecture at the TeslaTech conference which is very informative and which I would highly recommend. It is available on DVD from here under the title of "Tesla's Radiant Energy". He makes a number of important points, some of which are repeated here.
We tend to think of the battle for industrial electricity to have been between Thomas Edison's DC system and Tesla's AC system, with Tesla winning. Unfortunately, while true, that is not the full story as Tesla moved on from AC to more powerful systems, and Tesla lost out on those systems, leaving us today, with a workable, but much inferior system. We need to see the overall picture clearly. James Clerk Maxwell produced his famous equations, relating electricity and magnetism (which are actually two faces of a single entity called "electromagnetism"). Subsequently, H.A. Lorentz damaged those equations, throwing away the parts which showed that free-energy was available for use if we knew how to access it.
Out present day position has grown up where, while we realise that "gravity" is 1039 times less powerful than electromagnetism, we see "static electricity" as a weak and useless thing which needs to be avoided. The reality is quite different as Tesla points out and demonstrates. Tesla describes "static" and "radiant" energy as being a force which appears to have no ultimate limits at all. That is, it is capable of providing unlimited power. Our knowledge of this power is so inadequate that we believe that power can only flow in a circuit which is a closed-loop and the power flow has to be a stream of electrons. This is most definitely not the case.
The more powerful radiant energy flows like an electrically charged sound wave passing through incompressible air and which can be fed down a single wire without the slightest difficulty. In fact, you can even skip that one wire and use the earth instead, transmitting power with what appears to be no wires at all. The actual, final and most important contest was between closed-loop electricity and single-wire power transmission, and that contest was one which Tesla lost.
The nature of this radiant energy is so different to what we think of as conventional electricity that it is perfectly possible to light a filament light bulb held in one hand, while grasping a single wire in the other hand. When doing this, there is no sensation whatsoever and nothing at all is felt. This has been demonstrated and a video of that demonstration is on the web at this time.
In his lecture, Dr Lindemann remarks that his understanding of the subject has been helped considerably by the book "The Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla" and the book "The Secrets of Cold War Technology - HAARP and Beyond" which describes some of the early work done by Tesla. He also praises the book "Tesla's Vocabulary for Dummies" which is unobtainable, though he does show some quotations from it in his DVD lecture.
One feature of radiant energy which becomes clear from Tesla's description of it, is that the most useful effects which can be gained from it, start at a DC pulse frequency of 1 MHz which is far higher than experimenters use today. He stresses that we do not actually know the exact nature of electricity and that all of our present day measuring instruments are based on electron theory and so just do not measure radiant energy. In a way, it is a bit like the difference between AM radio and FM radio. Both are perfectly valid and work well, but an AM radio will not receive an FM radio signal and an FM radio will not receive an AM radio signal. Unfortunately, radiant energy is much more powerful than conventional electricity and it is not dangerous like electricity is. It should be noted that Hermann Plauston's very detailed patent US 1,540,988 is on methods of capturing and using this radiant energy, and he describes a systems which produces a net output of 100 kilowatts as being a "small" system. I don't know about you, but I would settle for a system which produced less than 10% of that fuel-less output.
The best information on radiant energy comes from the writing of Tesla and Dr Lindemann draws attention to one of Tesla's patents US 685,957 which explains how this radiant energy can be captured and used. Tesla also used a motor design which is effective with this type of energy. The motor has two windings, the first being fed directly and the second one receiving a 90 degree delayed pulse through a capacitor.
One thing that Tesla points out is that there is an incompressible gaseous medium filling the universe and which is composed of particles which are much smaller than hydrogen atoms. Mendeleev who constructed the table of elements indicates quite clearly that there should be two gaseous elements which are lighter than hydrogen, but he did not put them in his table because he did not know what they are.
The comments by Joseph H. Cater later in this chapter include the statement that gravity is electromagnetic radiation of a frequency just below that of infra red. The extract from Karl Schappeller’s work, also later in this chapter, states exactly the same thing and the same frequency. The extracts from Joseph Newman’s book, also later in this chapter, point out the effect of electron spin on attraction and repulsion. The document Cotterell.pdf is a paper on gravity by the very able Maurice Cotterell, part of which is quoted here:
“How Gravity Works” explains how Electricity and Magnetism work together to produce the force of Gravity and in doing so, they reveal the underlying science behind Newton’s equation which he tried in vain to uncover, namely, the reason why Gravity is proportional to the masses of two attracting objects, why it grows weaker in proportion to the square of the distance between them, and the nature of the “Gravitational Constant” which continues to perplex researchers to this day. It explains why all objects accelerate to Earth at 32 feet per second every second. It explains why the atom is comprised of eight orbital shells and why those shells fill with electrons in the way that they do. It explains how permanent magnetism works at atomic level, the nature of so-called ‘Dark Matter’, the reason why spiral galaxies are spiral, why the centre of the Earth is boiling hot and how the Earth’s magnetic field is generated.
Scientists cannot understand why the positive protons on the centre of atoms simply do not spring apart – their positive charges repelling each other. In 1935, a researcher named Yukawa suggested that another substance or particle must exist to ‘glue’ the protons in the nucleus together - a kind of atomic ‘velcro’. But an objector to Yukawa pointed out that if indeed that were the case, then there would have to be two kinds of velcro - a velvet side and a hook side (so to speak). But another researcher pointed out that protons covered in the velvet-side would not stick to other protons covered in the velvet-side, and that protons covered in the hook-side would not stick to other protons covered with the hook-side. So, another researcher pointed out that for such a scheme to work, there would have to be three types of each of the three types. Thus, the crazy field of Particle Physics was born. In the decades that followed, Particle Physicists were granted billions of dollars to find out what makes the atom stable. Since then, they have been searching for more than 300 imaginary sub-atomic particles. The Concise (Oxford) Science Dictionary comments:
“… the whole elaborate theory is circumstantial… none of the smaller particles have ever been identified in experiments… the theory does not claim to have been verified” .
Cotterell shows that none of the particles actually exist, and more importantly, that none are necessary. To explain why the atom does not spring apart, he returns to firm ground and to the 1930s pioneering work of Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick and shows that by simply changing the perceived shape of the electron and neutron, the gravitational mechanism is exposed, explaining away the mysteries of the atom and many of the mysteries of the cosmos.
Summary Part 1:
(A) A coil-shaped electron (shown in black) makes the hydrogen atom dynamic [come alive]. The amount of helically polarised electric field forced from the poles of the proton is maximum when the electron is horizontal, that is, after 180 or 360 degrees of orbital travel. Shown at the top left is the plan view of a hydrogen atom. The horizontal electron slices through the electric field (shaded pink). A magnetic field is induced into the coil which pushes against the electric field, causing it to topple on it’s own axis (like the opposing blades of a windmill) as it orbits the positive proton.
The orbiting coil-like electron sucks energy from the proton causing the proton to compress, release heat and cool rapidly.
Once the spinning electron-magnet passes the vertical position, the super cold proton sucks in ambient heat and expands rapidly; compression and expansion of the proton results in cyclical changes of capacitance [electric field] proportional to the surface area between the particles.
(iii and vii) The ends of the electron-magnet radiate maximum amounts of helically polarised magnetic energy after 90 degrees and 270 degrees of orbital travel [when vertical]. Hence the magnetic and magnetic radiation is displaced by 90 degrees and the electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the northern sector is displaced in phase by 180 degrees from that of the southern sector.
(B) (i) The orthodox view of a helium atom (containing two neutrons) precludes an understanding of gravity - each electron is passive [dead] and the spherically shaped neutrons render the atom unstable. Moreover, the electron is shown as a purely ‘electric’ particle when in fact it is electric for only half the time, and magnetic for half of the time. The electron is an ‘electromagnetic’ particle.
(ii) This new view of the helium atom accommodates a gravitational mechanism - the coil-shaped electrons bring the atom to life and the spike-shaped neutrons make the atom (the contents of the old neutron and the spiked neutron being identical). Supporting evidence: 31/3/08 researchers of the Hohn-Meitner Institute in Berlin announced that “neutrons behave like compass needles” – Science Daily.
(C) hydrogen spins axially and autonomously and so it radiates helically polarised ElectroMagnetic energy into space. [Supporting evidence: "hydrogen radiates helically polarised EM energy" www.sciencenews.org].
Helium [the only electrically geometrically symmetrical atom to contain spiked neutrons] also spins axially and autonomously and hence, likewise radiates helically polarised electromagnetic energy. In free space, hydrogen and helium are prime movers in the gravitational mechanism. Other atoms cannot autonomously radiate helically polarised electromagnetic energy because they do not spin axially or autonomously. However, when helically polarised electromagnetic radiation from hydrogen or helium bombards neighbouring atoms, it causes the nucleus of those atoms to spin in the same direction and, at the same time, causes the orbiting electrons in a cascade of atoms to synchronize their spin. As a result, the magnetic moments of orbiting electron-magnets in a cascade of atoms attract each other. This is the force of Gravity.
Summary Part 2:
(2A and 2B) The ‘Motor Effect’; helically polarised electromagnetic radiation from the hydrogen atom acts upon the negative charges of the neighbouring atom, causing the nucleus and the electron cage to spin axially and at the same time, synchronizes the spin of the electrons in both atoms [Supporting evidence: Nature 2009;458 (7238):610 DOI:10.1038.nature07871 (persistent spin helix)]. The mass of the electron is twice that of the neutron-negative charge, hence the torque on the electron-cage is twice that on the neutron-negative charges in the nucleus. Thus, the electron-cage spins faster than the nucleus.
(2B) The ‘Generator Effect; orbiting electrons in the neighbouring atom now ‘generate’ helically polarised electromagnetic radiation. The power of the atomic ‘generator’ is proportional to the differential speed between the nucleus and the electron cage and to the number of orbiting electrons (atomic mass). Electromagnetic output is a function of the number of electrons [atomic mass] (‘g’) AND of the difference in rotational speed between the nucleus and the electron cage (‘f’).
(2C) Gravity radiation from the hydrogen atom bombards neighbouring atoms sucking them towards the source of the radiation. [Here, to facilitate explanation, the magnetic wave (shown in blue) is shown radiating from the nucleus whereas in actuality, it radiates from the orbiting electron].
(2D) The corkscrew-style electromagnetic radiation from the neighbouring atom now, likewise, sucks nearby atoms towards itself. Both atoms suck in the same direction, thus gravity from the Sun and the Moon pull in the same direction. [To facilitate explanation, the electric waves (shown in red) are shown radiating from orbiting electrons].
(2E) As gravity radiation propagates and moves away from the atom, it decreases in field strength [per metre squared]. For every unit of distance travelled, the radiated energy diverges geometrically. This causes the radiated energy to reduce by the square of the distance travelled (“d2”). The numbers inside the square in the diagram above show the field strength of the radiating electromagnetic energy in volts per square metre. [Squares are used here just for illustration purposes as the diverging wave is actually conically-helical as seen in Figure 2F].
(2F) The frequency of the helically polarised electromagnetic radiation from the Earth remains constant. However, as m approaches M, the spiralling electromagnetic radiation accelerates the differential rotation between each atomic nucleus and electron-cage of which m is made. As a result, the ‘relative’ atomic frequency increases and hence the output of the ‘atomic generator’ increases, uniformly increasing the attracting electromagnetic Force between m and M in accordance with a square-law scale as m proceeds along the electromagnetic spiral. M thus attracts m with square-law [d2] uniform acceleration. In the diagram on the right, m is shown spiralling towards M with the electromagnetic wave stationary, but in reality, m approaches M in a straight line as the wave spirals across m.
(2G) Hence Isaac Newton’s equation for the force of gravity; where the force is proportional to the masses (m and M) of the two attracting bodies and the strength of the force decreases inversely with the square of the distance between them (d2).
G is Newton’s gravitational constant 6.67428 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2 - the instantaneous alternating magnetic force between any two electron-magnets in neighbouring atoms.
Maurice Cotterell gives a more advanced and in-depth explanation of this process in his latest book “FutureScience” in which the introduction says:
The 12 great mysteries of Physics
You can be forgiven for believing that Isaac Newton discovered the force which makes apples fall to the ground, but he did not. He simply gave the force (F) a name (“Gravity”) and noted that the strength of the force, whatever it might be, depends on the size of the Earth (Mass M2). He also figured out that the strength of force on the apple depends on how far away the apple is from the Earth to begin with and he noted, like Galileo before him, that as an apple falls it speeds up and travels faster and faster until it hits the ground.
At first, Newton set down the relationship between the force and the masses in a shorthand way (a formula) saying that F (the strength of the force) could be found by multiplying m1 by M2 and then by dividing the result by the square of the distance between them (d2). There was just one problem: every time he did the calculation he finished up with the wrong answer. He eventually discovered that the only way to get the right answer was to multiply the wrong answer by ‘667 billionths’. He did not know where this tiny amount of force came from, but just like he had done with Gravity, he gave the mysterious number a name – “the Gravitational Constant” G. This made his formula F = G x m1 x M2 / d2. It is hard to believe that since then, that is, for more than 350 years, still no-one understands what gravity is or what causes it or why we have to multiply the wrong answer by G to get the right one. To this day, no-one understands what G is or even where it comes from. That’s how sophisticated we are. No-one understands why objects fall to the ground.
The second most embarrassing problem for modern Science is that no-one understands why positive charges in the middle of atoms simply do not just spring apart which is what you would expect, given that positive repels positive. To overcome the contradiction, physicists decided that the positive charges must be glued-together in some way and so, for the past 75 years they have been searching for the ‘glue’ or more precisely, more than 300 types of glue – but as yet have not found any.
Also, no-one understands (given that positive attracts negative), why the orbiting negative electrons of atoms do not simply get sucked into the positive bits in the middle of the atom. They just ‘cannot understand it’.
When you place a magnet on the door of a refrigerator, you probably imagine that scientists understand how a magnet actually works, but they do not. As far as they are concerned, it seems to work by magic so they gave it the name magnet.
Switch on the light and you no doubt take it for granted that the people who supply the electricity understand how it works, but they do not. Physicists are pretty sure that an electrical current is simply the movement of atomic negative charges along a wire. The problem is that no-one understands why, whenever a current flows, a magnetic field appears around the wire.
When they look skywards at night, astro-physicists cannot understand what makes the stars cluster together into galaxies, because their calculations contradict what their eyes can see. To overcome this, they say that there must be other sources of gravity out there, like planets and dust which cannot be seen because it is dark. So they named their fantasy planets ‘dark matter’, at least for the time being, until they can figure out why their calculations do not make sense. Neither can they understand why stars spiral into galaxies, but they cling to the hope that when (or if) they understand how gravity actually works, that the reason for the double-spiral of galaxy formation will become clear.
“FutureScience” explains in a simple way, how Electricity and Magnetism work at atomic level, and how they work together to produce the force of Gravity and in so doing, reveal the underlying science behind Newton’s equation – the underlying science which he tried in vain to uncover – the reason why Gravity is proportional to the masses of the two attracting objects, why it grows weaker in proportion to the square of the distance between them, and the nature of the mysterious ‘Gravitational Constant’ which continues to perplex researchers to this day. It explains why all objects accelerate to Earth at 32 feet per second every second. It explains why the atom is comprised of 8 orbital shells and why the shells fill with electrons the way that they do. It explains the nature of so-called ‘dark matter’, the reason why spiral galaxies are spiral, why the centre of the Earth is boiling hot, how the Earth’s magnetic field is generated, how to generate gravity waves, how gravity waves can be used to produce unlimited quantities of free energy, how to generate antigravity waves, how antigravity waves can be used to de-couple hydrogen bonds in water, separating hydrogen from oxygen and providing unlimited supplies of free hydrogen to fuel hydrogen-powered cars, and how antigravity radiation can be used to cause the disintegration of matter in water and living tissue (phasor weapons technology).
The book goes on to explain the cause of the Sunspot cycle and how the Sun affects life on Earth: the cause of global warming and global cooling, how the 289-day spinning Sun regulates fertility in females, how the Sun’s radiation causes 12 types of genetic mutations which result in 12 types of personality (sun-sign astrology), how sunspots cause schizophrenia, how the Sun controls bio-rhythms and our day-to-day behaviour, how the Sun causes catastrophe cycles and the rise and fall of civilizations, and how mobile phones and power lines cause cancer.
How the discoveries were made
In 1935, in an attempt to explain why protons in the centre of atoms do not simply spring apart, a researcher named Yukawa suggested that another substance or particle must exist to ‘glue’ the protons in the nucleus together - a kind of atomic ‘velcro’. But an objector to Yukawa pointed out that if indeed that were the case, then there would have to be two kinds of velcro - a velvet side and a hook side (so to speak). But another researcher pointed out that protons covered in the velvet-side would not stick to other protons covered in the velvet-side, and that protons covered in the hook-side would not stick to other protons covered with the hook-side. So, another researcher pointed out that for such a scheme to work, there would have to be three types of each of the three types. Thus, the crazy field of Particle Physics was born. In the decades that followed, Particle Physicists were granted billions of dollars to find out what makes the atom stable. Since then, they have been searching for more than 300 imaginary sub-atomic particles. The Concise (Oxford) Science Dictionary comments:
“… the whole elaborate theory is circumstantial… none of the smaller particles have ever been identified in experiments… the theory does not claim to have been verified”.
FutureScience shows that none of the particles actually exist and, more importantly, that none are necessary. To explain why the atom does not spring apart, the Author returns to firm ground and to the 1930s pioneering work of Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick and shows that by simply changing the perceived shape of the electron and the neutron, the gravitational mechanism is exposed, explaining away the mysteries of the atom and many of the mysteries of the cosmos. The book is aimed at the general reader with no prior knowledge of Science and it uses many illustrations to convey the concepts simply and concisely.
Maurice Cotterell’s web site is www.mauricecotterell.com
John R. R. Searle. Professor John R.R. Searle of Britain developed an electrical generation system based on two rings of magnets being spun relative to one another. The magnet orientations oppose each other to produce a magnetic splatter field.
Dr. Terry Moore has recently built a replication model of this Searle technology and his model video is available on YouTube. The Searle device also demonstrates a gravitic effect and John has built what would loosely be described as a “flying disc” using this technology. If high voltage is applied to the device when it is rotating, then a surrounding corona develops and strong upward electrogravitic forces are generated.
The Gravity Wave Detector. It has been reported that Nikola Tesla made a device which allowed him to hear sounds at great distances. I have never seen any details of the circuitry used by Tesla. However, Dave Lawton has produced such a device, and he reports that he could hear conversations taking place four and a half miles away from him. Interestingly, the sounds from that distance were also travelling through a solid stone wall some three feet thick. The circuit for this device is described in this document.
In my opinion, the device is not picking up audio signals in the manner of a conventional microphone where air pressure waves vibrate a transducer, creating an electrical signal which is then amplified. The interesting thing is that it is distinctly possible that some other mechanism is coming into play here. This opinion is supported by the fact that Dave’s circuit is an upgraded version of a monopole gravity-wave detector. Dave used this device to record the “sound” of the Shumaker-Levy comet colliding with Jupiter.
The circuit shown here is quite conventional electronically speaking, comprising of two 741 operational amplifiers connected as a two-stage amplifier. The unusual feature is where a small amount of white noise is being fed into the microphone input:
The white noise is generated by the 5-volt zener diode. The level of this white noise component is controlled by the 1.5 megohm variable resistor plus the 10K fixed limiting resistor. While the range of these two components is 10K to 1.501 Meg. the working setting is normally very high and so only a very small amount of white noise is fed into the input of the first 741 op. amp. to modify the microphone input.
The adjustment of this injection of white noise is the main control of this most unusual circuit, and it has been found that when the setting is just right, the circuit has the feel of a public address system just about to go unstable from positive feedback. The unit build looks like this:
The theory of operation was put forward by Gregory Hodowanec in the April 1986 issue of the Radio-Electronics Magazine, where he puts forward the theory that the source of noise in electronic devices is caused by gravitational waves and he suggests that there are monopole gravity waves. This does not oppose the gravity waves predicted by Einstein. Gregory views these monopole gravity waves as being much stronger than those suggested by Einstein, and consequently, much easier to detect.
He also suggests that monopole gravity waves have been seen for many years and have been described as “1/f noise” signals or “flicker noise”. These signals have also been called Microwave Background Radiation, supposedly caused by the “Big-Bang” though this cause is disputed by some.
Gregory views our universe as a finite, spherical, closed system, i.e. a black body. Monopole gravity waves propagate in Planck time so their effects appear everywhere almost simultaneously. Gravity wave energy can be imparted to ordinary objects. So it is suggested that the fact that a fully discharged electrolytic capacitor can develop a charge when disconnected from all circuitry, is down to the interaction of the capacitor with monopole gravity waves.
Gregory suggests the following circuit for examining monopole gravity waves:
Details of this and the theory can be found here. Dave has taken that circuit and extended it substantially to give added gain plus a controlled feed of white noise, without relying on the characteristics of a capacitor, capacitors being notoriously variable in precise characteristics.
The unit is operated by turning the gain up until the circuit just reaches self-oscillation, and then backing the gain off very slightly. The white noise source is then adjusted until the unit is producing a somewhat echoing quality to the sound. The result is a device which has unusual characteristics. The circuitry is so simple and cheap, that you can easily try it out for yourself.
The Butch Lafonte Motor / Generator. Butch has designed an intriguing Motor / Generator system based on the balancing of magnetic and electrical forces. This clever design operates according to the following statements made by Butch:
1. If a magnet is moved away from an iron-cored coil, it generates a voltage:
The voltage generated for any given magnet and speed of movement, is directly proportional to the number of turns of wire which make up the coil.
2. If a magnet is moved away from an air-cored coil, it also generates a voltage. However, the big difference is that the voltage is of the opposite polarity. In other words, the plus and minus connections are swapped over:
Again, the voltage generated for any given magnet and speed of movement, is directly proportional to the number of turns of wire which make up the coil.
So, if these two arrangements are joined together, they produce a system where the voltages cancel each other exactly, provided that the number of turns in each coil are adjusted to produce exactly the same voltages. The mechanical attraction and repulsion forces also balance, so the circuit can be arranged to have no net effect when the rotor is rotated:
It follows then, that this motor arrangement could be introduced into an existing circuit without affecting the operation of that circuit. The arrangement would look like this:
Here, there is no net electrical or magnetic drag on the rotor as the magnets move away from the coils. The battery supplies current to the load in the normal way and rotor arrangement has no effect on the operation of the circuit.
However, when the rotor reaches 100o or so, past the coils, the On/Off switch can be opened. This leaves the rotor in an unbalanced condition, with there being an attraction between one magnet and the iron core of one coil. There is no matching repulsion between the other magnet and the air core of the other coil. This produces a rotational force on the rotor shaft, keeping it spinning and providing useful mechanical power which can be used to generate additional power. This extra mechanical power is effectively free, as the original circuit is not affected by the inclusion of the rotor system.
From a practical point of view, to give high rotational speed and long reliable life, the On/Off switch would need to be an FET transistor with electronic timing related to the rotor position.
There is no need for the rotor to have only two magnets. It would be more efficient if it had four:
Or better still, eight:
And if you are going to have eight, there is no need to have the V-shaped cut-outs which just create turbulence when spinning, so make the rotor circular:
And the stator supporting the coils matches the rotor:
Ferrite is a better material for the cores of the coils. The stators go each side of the rotors and the hole in the middle of the stators is to give clearance for the shaft on which the rotors are mounted:
A system of this type needs accurate timing which is solely related to the rate of rotation. This is best arranged by the use of a bistable multivibrator as described in the Electronics Tutorial of Chapter 12. You will notice the two Timing Coils shown at the right hand side of the diagram above. These are used to toggle the bistable On and Off and they are adjustable in position so that both the On and the Off can be set very precisely. The output of the bistable is set to switch an FET transistor On and Off to give circuit switching which is not affected by either the switching rate or the number of times the switch is operated.
The Rotor / Stator combination can be wired to act as either a driving Motor or an electrical Generator. The difference is the addition of one diode:
With this arrangement, for each rotor, all four pairs of Cored coils are wired in parallel across each other, and all four Air-cored coils are wired in parallel across each other. To improve the clarity, the above diagram shows only one of the four pairs, but in reality, there will be four wires coming into the left hand side of each of the screw terminals.
Further details of this Motor / Generator can be seen here.
The Joseph Newman Motor. Joseph Newman is a man who impresses me. He performs experiments, reports the results and then bases theoretical conclusions on the results of his own experiments. This is the true scientific method.
Joseph has been granted a patent and he has written a book. I would recommend that you buy a copy of his book and help support his work by doing that, but unfortunately, as I understand it, the printing plates for the book were destroyed in a fire and printed copies of his book are effectively unobtainable. You can download a .pdf version from the www.free-energy-info.co.uk web site but please be aware that the overall file size is 100 Mb and so the download will take quite some time. A background download can be had from here or alternatively here while the link to Joseph’s own web site is here.
In very brief outline, Joseph has built a motor which can access free energy. He has a theory about where the excess energy is coming from and how it is acquired by his designs. He has also built a large stationary motor to demonstrate his theory and he has built a motor into a car. The car engine runs on very minor battery power and can be seen here. Joseph’s patent is included in the Appendix of the eBook.
With the kind permission of the Joseph Newman organisation, I am going to attempt to introduce you to the important scientific conclusions reached by Joseph and the Energy Machine which he designed and which is based on those conclusions. Joseph has a keen enquiring mind and thinks things through for himself rather than blindly accepting everything he is told. This description contains illustrations and wording taken from parts of Joseph’s book published in 1984, and I should like to express my thanks for being given permission to use this material.
Joseph Newman’s motors all consist of a very powerful permanent magnet which rotates or oscillates in or near a coil with a very large number of turns of copper wire. The coil is energised by a battery pack, and the magnetic field produced by the coil provides the force needed to move the permanent magnet. A mechanical switching device or “commutator” reverses the direction of current flow through the coil every half cycle, and in some models, it also cuts off the current input between the current reversals.
The main difference between Joseph’s designs and previous motors is one of scale as Joseph uses very large coils and very large ceramic magnets weighing up to 700 pounds. His smaller motors use powerful rare earth magnets and the coils are wound with 100,000 turns of copper wire. This creates a very high coil resistance and the battery pack voltages are correspondingly high, being in the hundreds to thousands of volts range.
The torque or turning power applied to the magnet in these motors is proportional to the magnet strength, the number of turns in the coil and the current flowing in the coil. In Joseph’s motors, very large torques can be developed by very small currents. In one demonstration, a motor running on 3,000 volts at 0.8 milliamps has such power that it is not possible to stop the motor by holding its two-inch (50 mm) diameter shaft, though the current can be raised by trying to stop it, to 3 milliamps, or nine watts of power.
Joseph’s motors are different in other ways. If fluorescent tubes are connected across the motor coil, they light up due to the coil’s collapsing magnetic field each time the current direction is switched. These fluorescent tubes are used to protect the mechanical switch from arcing damage. The additional power produced in these tubes is at a very high frequency of 10 to 20 MHz. This radio-frequency current has been accurately measured and it exceeds the battery input current by a factor of five to ten times in the different motors. The measured current and voltage were in phase, indicating a real power output.
To understand the thinking behind these motors, we need to follow Joseph’s experiments and the deductions which he made from those experimental results. Joseph considered, and thought carefully about statements made by the two scientific giants James Clerk Maxwell and Michael Faraday, and this led him to valuable insights:
It appears that Maxwell and Faraday were the only people who considered that “lines” of magnetic force are actual physical entities and not just a method of representing notional forces and those “lines of force” are actually streams of matter in motion.
Maxwell says: “In speaking of the Energy of the field, however, I wish to be understood literally. All energy is the same as mechanical energy, whether it exists in the form of motion or in that of elasticity, or in any other form. The energy in electromagnetic phenomena is mechanical energy”.
Joseph then considered Michael Faraday’s Electrical Generator and the implications of the way in which it operated:
Here, a loop of wire is moved downwards from level “A” to level “B”. This movement causes an electrical current to flow leftwards along the wire as shown by the red arrows. Joseph’s question was “why does it go in that direction every time the wire is moved in that way?”
If the wire is moved upwards through the same magnetic field, then the current flowing in the wire moves in the opposite direction. Why? How does the current “know” which way to go?
If you turn the magnetic field round by reversing the position of the magnetic fields and then move the wire loop in the same way as before, the current flows in the opposite direction. How does the current “know” which way to flow, or which way round the magnets are turned as it does not touch them?
The next interesting point is that if the wire loop is moved up and down between the magnets, but turned to be parallel to the flux flowing between the poles, then no current flows in the wire, no matter how quickly the wire is moved up and down.
Another point is that if the wire loop is moved slowly up through the magnetic flux, the electric current which flows as a result of that slow movement, moves at the speed of light, flowing from “A” towards “B”.
Now, if the wire loop is disconnected and turned over, the part which was at “A” now moved to “B”, and the same movement of the wire carried out - the current flow is in exactly the same direction although its path along the wire is reversed (because the wire has been reversed). This shows that the direction of current flow is not affected by the wire itself.
According to conventional teachings, this electric current flow was not a result of the magnetic field as the magnetic lines of force were supposed to be imaginary, consisting of Potential Energy and no Kinetic Energy. It became clear to Joseph that this conventional teaching was wrong. Instead, it seemed clear that the magnetic field consists of particles which have mechanical characteristics, and those particles must be moving at the speed of light within the magnetic field.
A key question seemed to be: “how does the current ‘know’ which direction to flow?” as the direction was always consistent. After careful consideration, it occurred to Joseph that the answer was provided by the actions of a gyroscope:
Here, if the axle of the spinning flywheel, or gyroscope, is pressed downwards it moves off in the direction shown by the red arrows. However, if the axle is pressed upwards:
then the axle moves in the opposite direction as shown by the red arrows. This effect is, of course, reversed if the direction of rotation of the gyroscope is reversed (as it will be if viewed from the other side, in the same way as the current flow direction in the wire is reversed if the magnetic poles are swapped over).
Now, if the gyroscope axle is moved up and down equally on both sides, there is no resulting sideways force:
The action of the gyroscope axle matched the current flow in the wire in every respect, so it became clear to Joseph that the particles flowing between the poles of the magnet were spinning as well as moving at the speed of light. This gyroscopic mechanical motion of the particles accounts for all of the characteristics of the current flow in a wire which is being moved through a magnetic field. This is a major insight on the part of Joseph.
May I remark that these particles are not coming from the magnet itself, but are flowing in from the zero-point energy field, that flow being caused by the broken symmetry of the zero-point energy field generated by the dipole effect of the poles of the magnet. That is why energy can (appear to) be drawn from magnets for years on end.
Joseph then went on to consider the physical aspects of permanent magnets. There were two very significant facts which had to be considered. The first of these is that different materials have markedly different magnetic characteristics:
A bar of soft iron does become a permanent magnet when pulsed briefly with a strong magnetic field, but if exactly the same level of magnetic pulsing is applied to a similar bar of an alloy of iron, nickel and cobalt, a permanent magnet is also produced, but the magnetic field of the alloy is very much stronger than that of the soft iron bar. This shows that the molecular structure of the bar has a major effect on the resulting magnet.
In passing, please be aware that the more powerful magnets available nowadays are so strong that they can easily injure you. If you pick up a magnet and inadvertently get close to a second one, the loose magnet will jump some inches and try to connect to the one in your hand, crushing your fingers in the process and proving very hard indeed to shift in order to deal with the injury. I have also seen it alleged that US ‘AlNiCo’ (Aluminium / Nickel / Cobalt alloy) magnets are deliberately doped with K40 isotope which renders them useless fairly quickly. The source of this information is highly dubious, but the extra sales advantages to the magnet manufacturers would be significant. Also, the advantages for the people wanting to suppress the creation of free-energy magnet motors would be major as many talented US inventors are likely to think that their successful magnet motors were failures because the magnets appeared to be “drained of power” by being used in their design, when in fact, the design is perfectly good. So I will leave you to make up your own mind about the matter and remark that Bill Muller found that his powerful Chinese-manufactured magnets were in perfect condition after eleven years of use.
Another point which Joseph considered was the fact that when successive magnetic pulses are applied to a ferromagnetic metal bar, the resulting magnetic field strength reaches a definite maximum value, and further pulsing has no further beneficial effect:
This is considered to be the magnetic pulse aligning atoms in the metal. Eventually, all of the atoms are aligned and so not further effect can be produced by further pulsing. This alignment can be destroyed if the metal bar is heated to a sufficiently high temperature, forcing the atoms into such an energetic state that the alignment is lost.
It should perhaps, be stressed here, that the magnet itself does not have any power, in spite of seeming to have. Tom Bearden explains this clearly by pointing out that what happens is that the opposite poles of the magnet created a “dipole” which unbalances the random ‘quantum foam’ nature of the local environment (the zero-point energy field) and that causes continuous energy flows from the environment. The “magnet” power is coming from the environment and not from the magnet itself.
If you find this hard to believe and think that you are just getting back the electromagnetic energy which you pumped into the metal when creating the magnet in the first place, then apply simple arithmetic. Assume that you get back exactly 100% of the original power and calculate how long that amount of power would allow the magnet support its own weight against gravity, when attached to a vertical metal surface. Then ask yourself how come the magnet can do it for years and years on end. Point proved conclusively?
Joseph concluded that the attraction of “unlike” magnetic poles and the repulsion of “like” poles is caused by the gyroscopic spin direction of the actual physical streams of the “lines of force”, which he has shown that both of the scientific giants, Maxwell and Faraday were convinced were actual physical entities. The intuitive genius Nikola Tesla described the zero-point energy field as having the physical characteristics of a gas, capable of having motion, exerting pressure, and yet having particle size so small that it can flow through any physical material. Joseph has concluded that this field flow has a specific spin direction as it flows, certainly for flows caused by the magnetic dipole of a magnet. It should be remembered that the scientific teaching of present day educational institutions is at least fifty years out of date. We have the most unusual situation where the scientific literature of a hundred years ago is actually of better quality than that of today which does not describe the actual world at all well. Currently, misconception is alive and very well.
For example, Maxwell produced equations describing how the world works. Admittedly, these equations are very difficult for people to understand. H. A. Lorentz simplified these equations and his results are mistakenly described as Maxwell’s which they most certainly are not. Tom Beardon illustrates it this way; consider a sailing boat being driven along by the force of the wind against the sails:
Maxwell says that there is a vast swathe of wind blowing across the ocean, capable of powering a long row of a thousand sailing boats side by side. This is the actual physical case. Lorentz has ‘simplified’ things by saying “we will consider one boat and only one boat. As the rest of the wind does not touch any part of the boat we can ignore it”. While that is true for that one boat, what science teaching now says is that the wind can only power a single boat. This is not the actual case, as the environmental wind is not limited to powering just one boat (sailing regattas would not be much fun if that were the case!). This, of course, is just an illustration. Maxwell’s equations cover energy and power for the whole universe, and deal with all cases. Lorentz has taken a sub-set of the conditions described by Maxwell’s equations, just the group which apply to “closed systems” – just one boat on the ocean. Science has latched on to this and now confidently states that everything is a “closed” system, when in fact, as the zero-point energy field flows through everything, everywhere at all times, and is capable of supplying unlimited additional energy anywhere at any time, there is probably not a single instance of a “closed” system anywhere in the universe.
Joseph Newman, and all other serious inventors, have to fight against this “conventional” science teaching, which is now so entrenched that it has become the equivalent of religious dogma, and ‘scientists’ are unwilling to consider valid observations which do not fit in with the very limited Lorentz concept of the environment. They say “perpetual motion is impossible” which means that Newton was wrong when he said that a moving body will keep on moving indefinitely unless some force acts on it to stop it. Presumably, then, the Earth can’t keep on orbiting the Sun (gosh, I hope it doesn’t stop today as that would be very awkward). Come on – get real !!
You can see then, that when Joseph performs tests and then bases his conclusions on the results of those tests, that he is applying the true scientific method, and people who say that his verified results are impossible because Lorentz says so, are not being scientifically honest. No honest person can ignore genuine scientific observations.
Joseph’s deduction that magnetic lines of force are formed of actual physical particles spinning in gyroscopic motion as they move along their magnetic path at the speed of light, was not something which was obvious to scientists, in spite of the fact that both Maxwell and Faraday had both explicitly described these lines of force as being ‘kinetic magnetic energy’:
As a wire passes in front of and across the end of a bar magnet, the current flows in one direction, pauses, and then flows in the opposite direction. This occurs due to the gyroscopic flow direction of the particles. For instance, on one side of the South end of the magnet, the lines of force spin “up” while on the other side of that same South end, they spin “down”. A spinning gyroscope will move at right angles to the force acting on it, so as the gyroscopically spinning particles encounter the particles of the wire, they move “up” or “down” the wire at right angles to the direction in which they first encounter the wire. Please note that it is the gyroscopic spin direction of the particles which determines magnetic ‘attraction’ or ‘repulsion’ and not the direction of flow of those particles along their line of force:
It should also be realised that although we draw ‘lines’ of force around a magnetic device, the reality is that these are really shells of force and the magnetic flow is really like water flowing in a river. While we may draw arrows to indicate direction and strength of currents in a diagram of the river, the reality is, of course, that there is water flowing at all points in the river and not just along the lines which we decide to draw. The same applies to the magnetic flow around a magnet, it exists like a solid mass flowing through and around the magnet. You don’t see it or feel it because the particles are so small.
Now to the details of how to construct a device to take advantage of this magnetic movement and output more power than is required to make it operate. Let me remind you again that we are talking here of a Coefficient of Performance (COP) which is greater than 1 in a system which has an overall power efficiency of less than 100%. This is, of course, due to the additional energy flowing in from the zero-point energy field. Joseph visualises the apparent energy gain as being conversion of a small amount of matter into its energy form (E = mC2), and while this is probably correct, it will be particles of the zero-point energy field which are being converted into their energy form and not particles from the metal of the magnet. It must be remembered that the particles of the zero-point energy field keep swapping over from energy to physical form all the time anyway. Energy is never “used up” but merely converted from one form to another and the zero-point energy field contains such a staggering amount of energy that all of the visible matter in the whole of the universe could be created from the energy in a single cc of the zero-point energy field. So, if a few sub-sub-sub-microscopic particles of the zero-point energy field switch into their energy form to produce what looks like excess power to us, that is an item so trivial to the field that it is not even worth mentioning – less than the effect of taking one grain of sand off a beach one hundred miles long. The conventional conception of the way things are is so far away from reality that it is ridiculous, (and that is even without saying anything about the effect that the time axis dimension has on the energy balance and flow of energy).
But back to Joseph’s design. Firstly, he points out that it is generally agreed (courtesy of Gustav Kirchhoff) that in the situation shown here:
in any given instant of time, the amount of current flowing into the system (“X”) is exactly matched by the amount of current flowing out of the system (“X”). But, if measuring equipment is attached across the coil at the moment of switch-off, an additional amount of current (“X”) flows out of the coil. This is generally agreed, and it suggests that a quantity of current “X” flows into the coil and yet a quantity of “2X” flows out of it (COP=2).
Joseph examines this situation in practical detail as follows:
Consider an air-cored coil with an interior diameter of 10 feet, a height of 8.32 feet and would with 1,000 feet of 40-gauge copper wire. That length of wire has a resistance of 1,049 ohms and weighs 0.02993 pounds. If 100 volts DC is connected across it, then a current of about 95 milliamps will flow, which is a power input of 9.5 watts. With just 31.8 turns, it will produce a weak magnetic field of 0,012 Gauss, with a mere 0.000014 Joules of energy stored in it. With a tiny inductance of just 0.003 Henries, if the current is stopped and the ends of the coil shorted together, only an insignificant current would flow.
Now, repeat the experiment, but this time, use 5-gauge copper wire. As it has a resistance of 0.3133 ohms per 1,000 foot length. To equal the same resistance and match the previous current flow, a massive length of 3,348,000 feet needs to be used. This length of wire will weigh 335,469.6 pounds which is 16.77 tons. The 10-foot interior diameter coil, 8.32 feet tall, wound with this wire will have about 90,000 turns. If 100 volts DC is now connected across the coil, the same 95 milliamp current will flow with an input power of 9.5 watts, the same as before. But due to the massively larger coil, it has a magnetic field of 23.7 Gauss, which is 1,905 times larger than the previous coil, and with 116 Joules of energy stored in the magnetic field. This is a phenomenal 8,000,000 times more energy than in the 40-gauge coil of the previous example. A phenomenally larger current flow would now occur if the current input was stopped and the coil shorted out, as that would generate an inductance of 25,700 Henries which is more than eight million times the inductance of the previous coil:
Joseph then built a smaller version of his design, as shown here:
this prototype used 5-gauge insulated copper wire weighing 4,200 pounds and 300 pounds of 30-gauge copper wire wound over the 5-gauge winding, and a massive 4-foot long, 20-inch diameter permanent magnet of some 600 pounds in weight. The coil was wound with an inner diameter of 4-feet and a height of about 3-feet, wound on a fibreglass tube. The overall weight was about 5,000 pounds.
Everybody who was it was asked: “Based on your expertise, how much power would be necessary to simply operate this device mechanically?”. Answers ranged from 200 watts to 1,000 watts. On learning that it had an air-cored coil, other skilled individuals stated that in their expert opinion, the unit would be highly inefficient since it contained no iron core. However, from the design information already presented here, it can be shown that the actual necessary power input is less than 1.5 watts providing a power output far in excess of 100%.
Dr. Roger Hastings, Principle Physicist at Sperry Univac Corporation and former Associate Professor of Physics at North Dakota State University, tested this prototype and showed that it had an 800% efficiency – that is a Coefficient of Performance of 8.0 which is impressive. In addition, Dr Hastings estimated that with a 1.5 watt power input, the back emf exceeded 80,000 watts. In operation, the 600-pound, hand-made magnet rotates at just 200 rpm.
Joseph’s patent which is in the Appendix of the eBook, indicates four different ways of implementing his design principles. It is very clear that Joseph has proved his point by producing and constructing a device which Lorentz considered to be impossible, thanks to his throwing out the free-energy sections of Maxwell’s equations. Joseph Newman has clearly earned our respect.
Daniel Cook. In 1871, Daniel Cook obtained US Patent 119,825 for “An Improvement In Induction Coils”. It is by no means obvious how the device described could possibly operate, and it has been suggested that the patent information is incomplete having been edited at a later date. But as I have no direct evidence that it does not, or cannot, operate, it is shown here. Interestingly, the highly-respected Dr Harold Aspden considers this a very serious piece of equipment, operating as paired cross-linked capacitors, and his opinion carries very considerable weight.
It is a very simple device which could be interesting to test, especially as it does not involve any electronics or complicated construction. The patent can be summarised as follows:
My invention relates to the combination of two or more, simple or compound, helical coils with iron cores or magnets, in such a manner as to produce a constant electric current without the aid of a battery.
Fig.1 represents the different parts of a compound helical coil and iron core.
Fig.2 is a perspective view of my invention.
In carrying out my invention, I do not confine myself to any particular mode of coil construction or to any particular size of wire, observing only that the quantity of wire in the various coils must be sufficient to produce the required result; also, the material used to insulate the wires must be suitable for producing the required result. However, I generally prefer to use the same size of wire in the construction of both simple and compound coils.
When constructing simple coils, to produce the required voltage and current, it is desirable to use a long iron core as shown as A in Fig.1. This iron core may be two, three or even six feet in length, and two, three or more inches in diameter. The coil should be wound from good quality copper wire, insulated with silk or shellac. The iron core A may be a solid bar or a bundle of separate iron wires, the latter giving better results and providing more current for any given wire diameter. While the wire may be fine or coarse, I prefer to use No. 16 or even heavier wire, as the power output is in proportion to the length and diameter of the wire.
When using compound coils, it is preferable in some cases to use a small wire, say, No. 30 or even less, for the primary coil, and No. 16 or even larger for the secondary coil. With this combination, the initial secondary current of the primary coil being very small in comparison to the terminal secondary current of the secondary coil, offers little resistance to the terminal secondary, hence a quicker action is obtained. Alternatively, the primary coil may be of uninsulated wire coiled into a solid helix, being insulated only between the coils, in which case there is little or no opposing initial secondary current.
Helically wound coils alone with large quantities of wire will produce similar results. A ribbon spiral may be substituted for the secondary coil C, say, of three, six, twelve or twenty-four inches in width and of any convenient length, but always of sufficient length to raise its output current to the level necessary to sustain itself through its action on the primary coil B. In the use of compound coils, it is important that the secondary coil should be wound in the same direction as the primary coil, and the primary and secondary coils be cross-connected as shown in Fig.2. The action will then be as follows:
The secondary current of the secondary coil C, will circulate through the opposite primary coil B, while at the same instant, a secondary current from the primary coil B will be generated and circulate through the opposite secondary coil C, both currents flowing in the same direction in the opposite coils B and C, producing a combined magnetic action on the iron core A in the centre. The opposing initial secondary currents of the two coils B and C being overpowered, do not show in the main circuit D of the device, there being eight distinct currents developed in the action of one entire circuit of the two pairs of coils, two terminal and two initial secondary currents to each pair of coils, the four initial secondaries constantly opposing the circulation of the four terminal secondary currents, but the initial secondaries being of much lower voltage and current than those of the terminal secondary, are overcome, leaving a sufficient surplus terminal power to overcome the resistance of the primary wire and charge the bar A to the degree needed to reproduce itself in the opposite secondary coil. By this means, a constant current is kept flowing in all of the coils.
These coils may be constructed using 500 feet to 1,000 feet or more for each of the primary and secondary coils. The longer, and better insulated the wire, the greater is the power obtained from the device. The larger the wire diameter, the greater the current obtained.
If only single coils are to be used, it is preferable to have a wire length of 1,000 feet or more in each coil. The action is the same as with the compound coils, but only four currents are produced: two initial and two terminal currents, the latter flowing constantly in the same direction - in effect, there being only one current in the same direction.
The action in the coils may be started by using a permanent magnet, an electromagnet or by pulsing an extra coil wound around the outside of one of the coils of the device. If the load circuit is broken for any reason, the current stops immediately. It is then necessary to perform the start-up procedure again to get the device restarted. This can be overcome by permanently connecting a resistor across the terminal of the load so that if the load circuit is broken, the device can continue under very much reduced current until the load is restored. By this means, the device becomes the direct equivalent of a battery.
A rheostat D may be introduced into the main circuit to limit the current and prevent the overheating of the coils through the drawing of excessive amounts of current. The iron cores may also be used for producing electromagnetic motion when the device is operating.
Note: Interesting replication attempts are shown here.
Michael Eskeli. One of the greatest expenses for most families is the cost of heating or cooling a home. Any device which can help with this task is definitely welcome. Michael Eskeli has produced several most interesting designs which may have been overlooked due to lack of emphasis of what they do.
Normally, a central heating system uses an expensive method of heating a liquid, typically oil, which is then pumped through radiators around the building by a low energy pump. The vast majority of the cost is in heating, typically, a furnace and very little is spent on moving the heated liquid through the radiators. In this design from Michael, the cost of the heating is zero, and all that is left is a low-power (quarter to half horsepower) input, needed for spinning a rotor against the friction of its bearings and stuffing box.
As this seems impossible, a little very technical explanation is given here. This information has come from the web site of Scott Robertson with his kind permission. In broad outline, the device comprises of a disc-shaped housing with a closely-fitting rotor spinning inside it. A gas under pressure and a liquid under pressure are both fed into the device and they intermingle in a pulsating sequence which alternately compresses and releases the pressure on both fluids. This heats both fluids very effectively, and most interestingly, without the use of any user-supplied heating power and without the use of any heating fuel. This next paragraph is for Engineers, so if you don’t understand it, then just ignore it, as the important thing is to understand what the device does, rather than exactly how it does it.
The Heat-Pump Work Cycle: The example diagram above shows the sequence of events caused by the rotation of the disc inside the device housing. This “Pressure / Enthalpy” or “Pressure / Internal-Energy” diagram shows the pressures and temperatures during a single pressure cycle of the device. Using nitrogen as the gas, the cycle starts at point “1” which has a pressure of 150 psi and a temperature of sixty degrees F. A pressure wave now hits the mix of nitrogen and the liquid. This pressure wave moves us to point “2” where the pressure has been boosted to 540 psi which raises the temperature to 280 degrees F.
Moving to point “3” is where the wanted heat is passed throughout the gas a the liquid (performing the heating task which is the whole object of the exercise), even though the pressure is maintained, so at point 3 there is a pressure of 540 psi and a temperature of 138 degrees F. Next, comes a major drop in pressure, taking us to point “4” pulling the temperature down to below freezing: 250 psi at just 4 degrees F. At point “5” the pressure is dropped further to 150 psi, still at 4 degrees F. Point “6” takes us to 250 psi at 60 degrees F from where the cycle takes us back to point “1”, and the sequence starts all over again.
The compression takes place on leg 1 to 2 and leg 5 to 6. The actual amounts are 53.2 and 13.5 respectively, giving a Compression Total of 66.7 B/lb.
The expansion takes place on leg 3 to 4, leg 4 to 5, and leg 6 to 1. The actual amounts are 31.6, 16.6 and 18.7 respectively, giving an Expansion Total of 67.0 B/lb.
As these two are virtually identical, the overall result of a complete cycle is effectively work-free.
This work cycle can be readily performed by the Centrifuge-Type Heat Pump. This is a unit which has only one moving part, the rotor, the working fluid, such as nitrogen, is sealed in with the rotor and circulates in passages in the rotor. The circulation of the working fluid inside the rotor is accomplished by density control alone, in accordance with the work-cycle shown above, and there is no work input to the working fluid from the rotor shaft. Thus the work input for the heat transfer is nil, and a work-free heat pump results.
In the diagram shown below, an axial cross-section and an end view with sections removed, shows a typical heat pump rotor suitable for use with the work-cycle discussed above.
In the diagram, 10 is the heated-fluid heat exchanger, 11 is the heat-supply heat exchanger in two parts, and 12 are the vanes in passages which return the working fluid from the periphery to the centre of the disc. The work cycle process is of the non-flow type for the working fluid in this rotor, and this provides higher performance that that in the example shown above.
The fluid to be heated is usually a liquid, such as water, which enters and leaves the rotor via the rotor shaft. Similarly, the heat-supply fluid circulating through heat exchanger 11, is a liquid which enters and leaves via rotor shaft passages.
The work-free heat pump obviously has many uses. One such use is in heating all types of buildings and homes, resulting in cost-free heating, since no fuel is needed, and the power usage is nearly nil. In the heat pump shown above, power is needed to drive the rotor against friction which may require a quarter to half horsepower motor.
Another use is in power generation, resulting in cost-free power since the unit uses no fuel, the energy source being either ambient air, or water from some natural source. (Attached turbine generates the power; part of this is used to overcome the heat pump friction loss and the remainder is available for generation of electricity). Further uses are in portable power and transportation vehicles, etc.
The apparatus and methods and work cycles are patented. For basic heat pump, see US Patent 3,926,010 and Canadian Patent 984,827.
Here is one of Michael’s many patents:
US Patent 3,650,636 21st March 1972 Inventor: Michael Eskeli
ROTARY GAS COMPRESSOR
Method and apparatus for a compressor for compressing air, gases and vapours isothermally using a liquid stream to compress the gas; the liquid issuing from an impeller intermittently, with the gas being entrained between these liquid pulses and compressed by the liquid; the liquid having high kinetic energy when leaving the impeller and in slowing the kinetic energy is converted to pressure for both the liquid and entrained gas. Also, this compressor may be used advantageously to compress vapours, wherein the liquid is the same fluid as the gas, in which case condensation of the gas to the liquid occurs, and work of compression is reduced.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates generally to devices for compressing gases, air and vapours, in which a liquid is in intimate contact with the gas or vapour to be compressed.
DESCRIPTION OF PRIOR ART
There are numerous devices and machines available for compressing a gas or a vapour. In some of these machines a liquid is rotated inside an eccentric casing, so that the machine rotor will cause the liquid to pulsate and the space between the rotor blades is increased or decreased, and this variation compresses the gas. These machines are called liquid piston type machines. Another device is the jet ejector compressor, where a stream of liquid or gas is used to entrain the gas or vapour to be compressed, and the kinetic energy of the stream is converted in a diverging nozzle to a pressure.
The main disadvantage of the liquid piston type machine is its poor efficiency, since the liquid is rotated in the machine and requires relatively large power input for compressing the gas. In the ejector compressor, the velocity of the liquid stream is limited and it entrains poorly of any gas; therefore the efficiency of the device is very poor. The available kinetic energy in the liquid stream is high, but due to poor entrainment of the gas by the liquid, results for the device are poor.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Fig.1 is an end view of the compressor casing, showing the exterior.
Fig.2 is a side view and a section of the casing and the impeller of the compressor.
Fig.3 is a side view and a section of the impeller, and
Fig.4 is an end view of the impeller, showing the fluid passages.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
It is an object of this invention to provide a method and a device for compressing gases or vapours essentially isothermally in which the kinetic energy contained by a liquid stream is used to compress said gas to a higher pressure where the liquid in slowing in speed will increase its pressure and increase the pressure of the gas being entrained in it. Also, it is an object of this invention to provide a method and a device in which the gas may be partially or fully be condensed in the liquid stream thereby lowering the work of compression; this occurring when the gas or vapour being compressed is the same fluid as the liquid; that is, the gas being compressed is the vapour phase of the fluid, and the liquid being used for as the motive fluid is the liquid phase of the fluid.
Referring to Fig.1, there is shown an end view of the compressor, where 10 is the compressor casing, 11 is the liquid inlet, 12 is the gas or vapour inlet, and 13 is the outlet.
In Fig.2, a side view of the compressor is shown. The impeller 22 is rotated by shaft 28, supported by bearings and sealed by packing 23 and stuffing box 24. Alternately a mechanical seal could be used. The liquid that is used as the motive fluid enters through opening 11, passes through the impeller 22 and leaves the impeller at a high velocity and entering the throat section 21 and from there the diffuser section 29 in the casing 10. After leaving the diffuser at a higher pressure, and at a lower velocity, the gas and liquid mixture is collected in annular space 30, and from there passes out through opening 13. The liquid entrains gas from annular space 31, and the gas enters the annular space from outside through opening 12.
In Fig.3, the impeller 22 is shown in more detail, where 38 is the fluid passage, and 36 is the opening for the drive shaft.
In Fig.4, the impeller is shown, with 22 being the impeller and 38 being the fluid passage.
In operation, the compressor functions in a manner similar to a jet ejector compressor. A motive fluid is accelerated in a passage in the impeller to a high velocity; this corresponds to the motive fluid nozzle in a jet ejector. However, the fluid stream issuing from the impeller, when it rotates, is not continuous as seen by the compressor casing, since in this particular instance, the impeller has four fluid passages, with solid material between them. Therefore, the flow from impeller, as seen by the compressor casing, is pulsating, with empty spaces between the high speed liquid; these empty spaces being filled by the gas from the annular spaces, item 31, Fig.2, and the gas being rapidly moved with the liquid to the outer annular space 30, and from there to discharge. This pulsating action improves the entrainment of the gas by the liquid, and more fully utilises the kinetic energy available in the liquid stream.
The sizing of the fluid passages and the calculations related to them, are fully described in thermodynamics literature for jet ejectors and for steam injectors. The space of the passage 38 in Fig.3, would be either converging for liquids that do not vaporise when leaving the passage; or the passage could be diverging at its outlet for fluids which will vaporise either partially or fully when leaving the passage. Of the non-vaporising liquids, water would be an example, and of the partially vaporising types, butane would be an example, both at atmospheric temperatures, and at low pressures. As illustrated in Figs. 2-4, passageways 38 comprise a converging section nearest the centre of the impeller but are at least non-converging at the discharge section. Preferably, the at least non-converging section is a diverging section for better taking advantage of the energy available in the motive fluid to achieve higher exit velocities.
The fluid passages shown in Fig.4, item 38, can be radial as illustrated, or be forward or backward curved, depending on the fluid used. Also, the throat section 21, of Fig.2, may have vanes of proper shape to prevent circular motion of the fluid after it leaves the impeller. Vanes of this type are commonly used in turbines and pumps and so are not described here. There are four fluid passages shown in Fig.4, but this number will be determined when calculations are made for the size of the passages, and the frequency of pulses of liquid required to maintain suitable pressure and volume relationships inside the compressor; also, the rotational speed of the impeller would enter into these calculations.
Normally, the amount of liquid is large when compared to the amount of gas or vapour. Therefore, when compressing a gas, the heat of compression from the gas is transferred to the liquid, resulting in a temperature increase of the liquid, as well as of the gas. This temperature increase is much less than it would be for the gas alone, resulting in nearly isothermal compression, and therefore reduced work of compression, as compared to isentropic compression which is often used in rotary compressors. Also, if a liquid that will expand in the impeller is used, with an expanding fluid passage, the temperature of the motive fluid is lowered, and the fluid velocity greatly increased, resulting in much better efficiency for the compressor; this is similar to the function of converging-diverging diverging nozzles in jet ejectors.
The operation of the compressor may be inferred from the above descriptive matter. A liquid source is connected to the impeller inlet Fig.1, 11 and a gas or vapour source is connected to the gas inlet Fig.1, 12. Discharge from the compressor is from Fig.1, 13. A suitable power source, such as an electric motor, is connected to shaft Fig.2, 28, causing the shaft to rotate. The liquid is accelerated by the action of the impeller, and as it passes through the annular space Fig.2, 31 in a pulsating flow, it entrains the gas and carries it to annular space 30, from where it discharges.
Materials of construction for the compressor would be similar to those used to make pumps for pumping liquids. Cast iron, steel, bronze, brass, stainless steel and various plastics could be used.
What is claimed new is as follows
1. A machine for compressing gaseous fluid and having the major components of:
2. The machine of claim 1 wherein said at least non-converging section is diverging.
Karl Schappeller. There have been a number of quite outstanding men who have had great insight as to how the universe is and how it operates. One of these is Karl Schappeller who is virtually unknown. One of the reasons for this is the fact that publicising his work has been strongly opposed by people who do not want his understanding to become widely known. One device produced by Karl in order to prove that his understanding of things was correct, produced substantial amounts of excess energy, and while I do not know of anybody who has replicated his device, I am including here, a short presentation on the subject, written by Henry Stevens web site and the book by Cyril Davson which he mentions, can be downloaded from here and read in full.
In the presentation by Henry Stevens, he mentions UFOs or flying discs. There has been a propaganda campaign waged against the general public for more than fifty years now, with the objective of persuading people that “UFOs” are not real, and if they were, then they would be the vehicles of “little green men”. This campaign has been remarkably effective and members of the public in general will immediately dismiss flying discs as being “impossible” and not something which any sane person would consider for a moment. This attitude is based on an almost total lack of knowledge of the facts. There are at this time, large numbers of flying discs, built by humans and capable of spectacular flight abilities. There are two varieties: those which need the atmosphere to operate and those which don’t.
If you feel that this is a “load of rubbish” then take a look at the following US patents:
This small selection of forty-seven patents is restricted to just those which have the well-known “flying saucer” shape. Do you seriously think that not a single one of these patents had a test prototype which flew or that they were all piloted by “little green men”?
I have no interest in flying machines which need an atmosphere as they are just advanced versions of conventional aircraft. In the early 1900s, Nikola Tesla designed and built what he described as his “flying machine”. This was a small device without wings and which ‘flew’ without the use of a fuel. This design of Tesla’s was taken by the Germans and during World War II, developed and experimented with. After the war, it was taken to the USA and developed further at Groome Lake, and at this time, the US, UK, Canadian and Russian governments have got large working copies which they keep as secret as they possibly can. One major cover story is that these craft belong to “extraterrestrials” who have such an advanced level of technology that we will never be able to understand it. It is a good story, as it is not possible to disprove it. If you want a good deal of specific information on this, then read “The Hunt for Zero Point” by Janes researcher and writer Nick Cook.
While I have no particular interest in electrogravitic propulsion (or "anti-gravity" as it is popularly known and incorrectly termed) if the subject interests you then take a look at the YouTube video sequence of Stan Deyo who was one of the people who developed electrogravitic propulsion for an international group, several decades ago. Stan explains "gravity" as being the product of spin affecting the space-time continuum and he shows practical mechanisms for generating a drive from this principle in his presentation here.
The Karl Schappeller Device Author: Henry Stevens
Karl Schappeller (1875-1947) literally went from being born in poor-house to owning a castle during his lifetime. His economic success was mirrored in his experiments in energy as a lay-scientist, culminating in the invention of a free-energy device which attracted considerable attention around 1930. Schappeller made no secret of his invention and actively sought private financing to manufacture and distribute the results of his research. He was in touch with financial concerns and he even spoke with a representative of the British Admiralty concerning the utilisation of his device to power Royal Navy's ships (1).
At this time, 1930, the device was somehow appropriated and further worked upon by a governmental organisation of the German Weimar Republic, the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft or Reich Works Association (RAG). At least one aim of the RAG was to make Germany self-sufficient in energy production. Specifically, they published their intentions to utilise many Schappeller devices in a system of broadcast energy distribution throughout Germany which would result in the entire elimination of the electrical grid (2). As we know, Adolf Hitler assumed power three years later and for strategic reasons, he was also very interested in making Germany independent of foreign sources of energy. It is known that political and scientific structures were set up to work on the energy problem as evidenced later by the synthesising of gasoline and oil products from coal by the 3rd Reich. One of these political and scientific structures was contained within the SS and it is known that Karl Schappeller actually met with SS Reichsfueher Heinrich Himmler in Vienna in 1933 (3).
Left: Inventor Karl Schappeller Right: Karl Schappeller’s Device. A. Steel outer casing. B. Special ceramic lining in which tubes are embedded. C. Hollow centre, filled with glowing magnetism when in operation. D. Tubes, circuit and earthling.
Fortunately, there are good descriptions of the Schappeller device upon which to draw in both German and English. Per Vril-Mythos is a complete discussion of Schappeller, his device, the history and the controversy surrounding it. "Vril, Die Kosmische Urkraft Wiedergeburt von Atlantis” and “Weltdynamismus Streifzuege durch technisches Neuland an Hand von biologischen Symbolen” represent an attempt by the RAG to popularise their ideas in booklet form. Finally, British electrical and mechanical engineer, Cyril W. Davson, visited Karl Schappeller in Austria and spent three years learning of his device and his theory before the Second World War. Davson's descriptive book, “The Physics of the Primary State of Matter”, was written in 1955, after the war and the death of Schappeller.
Before describing the device itself it should be understood that Schappeller and all writing about his device believe that the energy-source being tapped is aether energy, sometimes called "Raumkraft" or "Raumenergie", that is space-energy (4)(5)(6). This device was also said to be capable of, perhaps with some tuning, emitting aether as a radiant energy (7). The physics of aether energy is described by Davson as “primary physics” as opposed to “conventional physics” which he believed could only be considered to be a secondary, derivative understanding.
For readers who have never heard of "aether", perhaps the simplest explanation for aether physics is that of the late Dr. Hans A. Nieper (7) entitled “Revolution in Technology, Medicine and Society”. Aether could be thought of as an energy source emanating from everywhere equally at once. The universe could be considered, as is often said, to be "a sea of energy". It forms a background of energy everywhere, and since it is everywhere all the time, it is difficult make independent measurement of it. This aether energy is in constant motion. All energy is radiant energy, according to this theory. This can easily be appreciated as to electromagnetic radiation but it is also true of that very elusive thing called gravity. Newton described the effects of gravity but he never told us exactly what it was. Dr. Nieper tells us that gravity is really a push, and not a pull. Gravity is acceleration and is caused by the aether field. Again, all energy is radiant-energy whose fundamental basis is aether radiation.
From the aforementioned book by Dr. Nieper: In addition, Nieper established the axiom that, “all natural accelerations can be attributed to a single unified basic principle, namely, the interception (or braking) of a field energy penetrating from the outside (gravity acceleration, magnetic, electromagnetic, electrostatic and radiesthesic acceleration)".
In trying to explain aether, it might be thought of as an all-pervasive liquid, occupying all of space. This liquid concept is useful because a liquid can not be compressed but can only transfer the energy attempting to compress it from one location to another. This is how the brakes of a vehicle work. The driver presses the brake pedal when he wants to slow down or stop. The plunger of the brake pedal attempts to compress the liquid in the master cylinder. The master cylinder is connected to each wheel by metal tubes full of liquid. When pressure is put on the master cylinder by the driver it is transmitted to each of the four wheel cylinders full of the same fluid which transmits the force, moving the brake mechanism, slowing the wheels of the vehicle.
In a similar way, the aether serves to transmit energy through this "non-compressible" quality. In a primary electric coil and secondary electric coil, for instance, induction in the secondary does not take place directly from the primary as is now said by current physics, but instead, the induction between the two windings is due to the aether field. This concept of the energy transfer function of the aether field is also expressed by Davson.
Using this perspective, that all energy is radiation, the braking of aether radiation, that is the slowing down or stopping of this radiation, can cause a transfer to other forms of energy. The word "energy" means the entire electromagnetic spectrum. That includes, electric, magnetic and electrostatic fields. This means heat. This also means gravity. Again, gravity is the primary radiation of the aether field. It radiates from every point in the universe equally.
This concept seems ridiculous until it is given some thought. One might ask: “How can gravity be a push when we know better?” After all, things fall to earth, don't they? The answer is that the effects which we feel and call “gravity” are due to aether shielding. Aether radiation can be braked, that is slowed down and absorbed by mass. It is then re-radiated or converted into mass. It is re-emitted as slower aether radiation or even as heat. Some of it can, and is, converted into mass inside a planet. If there is a loss of aether radiation, then there is shielding. Thus, a planet would shield from this radiation in one direction. That direction is always toward its centre which is the direction of greatest mass and that is what we describe as "down". This is simply the area which contains the maximum amount of shielding. In all other directions the aether radiation continues to exert its push on us. The area of minimum shielding is directly opposite the area of maximum shielding, so things fall (or more correctly are accelerated or "pushed") towards the earth.
Think about this for a minute. Being in deep space is rather like being underwater. Underwater, the pressure at all points is so similar that we feel weightless. We are weightless in deep space because the aether field exerts a push on us from all directions equally. In space, the nearer one gets to a large body the stronger the push is from the opposite direction since the body shields or converts the aether radiation. The result of this thinking is a mechanism totally different from "gravity" as we know it but appearing as exactly the same observed phenomena.
The beauty of this aether theory of gravity is that gravity functions like every other form of radiation. Its underlying cause, aether radiation, can be converted to mass or, in certain circumstances, re-radiated or converted to other forms of energy. No Unified Field Theory is necessary. The aether field is the unified field. Further, there is no need to look for something separate called "anti-gravity". If gravity is a push then it is all anti-gravity. All we have to do to make a UFO, is to find this particular gravity frequency and find out how to generate it.
Aether physics was a lost physics. Physics was hijacked early in the 20th Century by the alleged results of the Michelson-Morley experiment. This experiment assumed that "aether" was matter. There is some confusion here. We know now that particles moving near the speed of light are measured as waves, that is energy, rather than as matter. Nevertheless, aether theory has been discredited among physicists who, in turn, discredit others who raise the subject. It is only through the efforts of "free-energy devices" and free- energy researchers, that this knowledge is being returned to us. Without this aether theory, the reason these devices work cannot be explained at all. Rejection of aether theory allows these devices to be dismissed as "theoretically impossible" and so “fraudulent” by implication. They are marginalised and dismissed as "perpetual-motion devices". According to established physics, perpetual-motion devices violate the physical laws of conservation of energy. Without an aether theory as an explanation, they do violate the laws of conservation of energy and so their detractors are able to simply dismiss them out of hand. The simple fact that some of these free-energy devices actually work, does not seem to bother these scientists in the least. Rather than change the theory to accommodate the observed facts, the facts are ignored and substituted by dogma. Whether we like it or not, we are living in an energy Dark Age.
Instead of aether theory, we have all been led to focus upon Einstein and his Theories of Relativity. Two or three generations of scientists have wasted themselves on "trying to prove Einstein right". This misguided thinking has resulted in stagnation. One need go no further than the many "free-energy" devices which have arisen to the level of notice in spite of accepted scientific theory to see that this statement is true.
Needless to say, German scientists of the Nazi period laboured under no such illusions. They never abandoned aether physics. This was the fundamental reason why field propulsion UFOs were first developed in Germany. After the Second World War two different sciences developed, both called "Physics". One was the relativity-based concept taught in schools, while the second, more esoteric type, was used secretly, by the secret government, for deep “black projects”.
Structure of the Schappeller Device
According to Davson's description, upon which we will rely, the Schappeller device is really composed of two separate units, the rotor and the stator. The stator is constructed as follows: Its surface is round or ball-shaped, being composed of two half-shells of steel. These half-shells contain the internal structure and are airtight. Attached at the "pole" of each half-shell is an iron bar-magnet, most of which is positioned inside the sphere. This means that the bulk of each magnet is inside the steel ball, one opposite the other. There is a space between the two bar magnets at the very centre of the sphere.
An Insulating ceramic material, is placed on the inside of the steel ball, leaving a hollow central area. Within this hollow area, and around the space between the magnets, are two coils are mounted. These start at the pole of the bar magnet and finish at the centre of the sphere, with a connection leading out of the sphere to the rotor. These coils are wound using a hollow copper tube filled with a special, secret substance called the "electret". Upon leaving the sphere, the electret-filled copper tubes are replaced by conventional copper wire. An electrical connection is made from the outside surface of one pole to one pole of a special type of battery which is grounded at the other pole or, alternatively, to a special device called an "Ur-machine" which will be discussed later.
This electret is a permanent magnet within the sphere. This type of magnetism is not identical with ferro-magnetism or electromagnetism, it is much stronger (8). The actual composition of Schappeller's electret remains a secret, but another electret has been made by Professor Mototaro Eguchi. It consists of carnauba wax and resin, perhaps also containing some beeswax. It was kept in a strong electric field while baking slowly until it solidified. For purposes of the production of Schappeller spheres, a complete electret manufacturing plant would have to be set up, which has no parallel in present science (9).
Before being set into operation, all the air is pumped out of the hollow core of the sphere. This whole ball is mounted on a swivel mechanism so that the poles can be moved from the vertical to the horizontal. The stator is not attached to the rotor. The stator can function without the rotor and the stator is capable of producing electrical energy without the rotor. The rotor could also be used to generate additional electrical energy.
The rotor consists of a steel wheel of special design fixed on the shaft to be driven, and surrounded on its outer surface by magnets which are attracted and repelled by the force of the stator. The copper wire attached to the internal electret-filled copper tubing, runs through this wheel and supplies electric power to the magnets. The magnets are hollow and filled with the same electret. There is always an odd number of magnets.
A variant of this rotor comes to us from Taeufer, who refers to this further development as the "Ur-Machine". This machine is composed of six sphere units as described above, five revolving around a sixth one which is positioned either above or below the plane of the other revolving spheres. A seventh unit would be employed to rotate the five rotating spheres and so would be offset, and not attached to the others. The five rotating spheres would charge the sixth stationary sphere. The sixth and seventh spheres would function as an anode and cathode and so ground the unit. The Ur-machine could be used to activate other spheres instead of a battery-earthing procedure (10).
As a prime mover, an engine, the rotor would be used to turn a drive shaft. The stator would be offset, that is, moved off centre in relation to the rotor. Schappeller worked out various angles of efficiency (11). The drive shaft could be used to power any number of machine applications such as, for instance, the propellers of a ship.
Means of Operation
The device is started through a connection to a totally unique battery and a connection to the earth (12). A specific excitation impulse must be given to the device (13). This electric impulse is conducted through the iron magnet and jumps the gap in the centre of the sphere to the other iron magnet.
What occurred then sets this device apart from all others. In the vacuum of the sphere, in the centre space between the two bar magnets a field of "glowing magnetism" is set up. This glowing magnetism is something entirely unique. It is recognised as a magnetic field, but much more powerful and unlike any magnetic field produced by an iron bar or an electric coil. Once the initial input had been made to start the device, the battery and ground can be disconnected. The device then continues to operate on its own (14).
For an understanding of what is really happening here we have to consider the bar magnet. We think of a bar of iron with two poles, one positive and one negative or perhaps one north pole and one south pole. But there are really three components to the bar magnet. There are the two poles and the neutral zone between the poles. If we cut the magnet in half we get two new poles. For the Schappeller device, this neutral zone is very important. Imagine a bar magnet running through the vertical axis of the ball. Then imagine the centre section cut out. We now have a north pole at the top of the ball, a south pole at the bottom of the ball just as we do with the planet Earth. In the centre we have a missing section with a south pole, opposing the north pole at the top of the ball and, likewise, a north pole opposite the south pole at the bottom of the ball. We have now four poles and a split bar magnet with a gap in its centre section.
It is this gap in the centre where Schappeller's "glowing magnetism" is generated by grounding, that is, charging the device via a special battery and an earth connection. This glowing magnetism is the mystery. Davson cites Schappeller's calculations and gives this form of magnetism as being a thousand times more powerful than that produced by present magnetism (15). He also states that in this form of magnetism the electricity is stationary while the magnetism is radiated (16).
To state this again, Davson contends throughout his book that this glowing magnetism is not found in secondary physics, that is, in modern physics, and that this glowing magnetism is a manifestation of primary physics. As a phenomenon of primary physics, it is responsible for, and can generate, heat, electricity and magnetism.
After initial stimulation and in a state of glowing magnetism, no further input of energy is needed from the battery. The device is able to draw in energy to it directly from the surrounding aether, bind this energy though its magnetic electret material, that is the filling in the hollow copper coils of the internal coil, and then re-radiate energy producing heat, electricity, magnetism or mechanical work depending upon the application.
Stated another way, this is an implosion device and it is described as such (17) (18). Unlike the Schauberger device which is associated with the word implosion, the Schappeller device operates purely at the energetic level. Energy is drawn towards the centre, through the magnets, into the field of glowing magnetism, and then radiated outward.
My first explanation for this output of radiant energy involves the concept of the Bloch Wall. A Bloch Wall is defined by Van Norstrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, 1958 edition, pages 201 and 202, as: "This is a transition layer between adjacent ferromagnetic domains magnetised in different directions. The wall has a finite thickness of a few hundred lattice constants, as it is energetically preferable for the spin directions to change slowly from one orientation to another, going through the wall rather than to have an abrupt discontinuity" (18).
In electromagnetics the Bloch Wall is external to the hardware itself. It is the point of division of the circling vortex, or spin, of the electronic magnetic energies of the north and south poles. The negative north pole magnetism spins to the left while the positive south pole spins to the right. Energy is being conducted into the Schappeller device through the un-insulated poles and being conducted and spun on its way to the centre of the unit. The point of zero magnetism, no spin and magnetic reversal, where the two spin fields join, is the Bloch Wall (19).
Bloch Wall, a gravity wave source as a function of the electromagnetic spectrum? (Dr. Richard Le Fors Clark)
Oscillating circuit. Charged capacitor (electric field) discharges, current carried through
insulated wire to charge coil (magnetic field) which discharges, charging capacitor.
Oscillating electric and magnetic fields yield electromagnetic waves.
The Block Wall radiates energy. Remember, if energy is coming in then it must be going out. The Bloch Wall may generate radio, radar and other electromagnet frequencies but what is most interesting is that it is actually able to radiate gravity as according to Dr. Richard Le Fores Clark. According to this interpretation, the conjunction of two dipolar generated force-field vectors, a quadropole force field or gravity is generated according to Dr. Clark. Gravity being a quadropole source, it radiates in a circular, 360O, pattern of two cycles. Dr. Clark has fixed the point of emission as below that of radar and above infrared at 1012 Hz (20). Dr. Richard Le Fors Clark believes that gravity is a radiation (20) and so it is a "push".
In late 2001, I wrote a magazine article on the Schappeller device (20) which contained most of the material described above. In that article, I requested alternative explanations for the Schappeller device. I received a letter from Mr. Michael Watson, BSc, Charted Physicist and Member of the Institute of Physics in the United Kingdom. But there was something in Mr. Watson's background even more impressive than his professional credentials. Cyril W. Davson was a family friend whom Mr. Watson knew well in his youth and with whom he had discussed Schappeller and his ideas at some length on many occasions. In Mr. Watson's letter was a brief summary of Schappeller's theory in which he cut through most of the confusing terminology.
This summary is important for a couple of reasons. Mr. Watson's summary of Schappeller's aether theory as described by Davson dovetails nicely into the ideas of Schauberger yet seems to allow for Tesla's experimental results on aether as explained by Bill Lyne. The following is what I learned from Mr. Watson's letter:
Most of us have heard of the two Laws of Thermodynamics. These are laws of heat. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy is conserved, meaning that the total amount of energy in the universe always remains the same. This is no surprise for most of us and it is not the real concern here.
What is of concern is the Second Law of Thermodynamics which discusses heat and entropy. The word “entropy” might be thought of as a state of randomness or chaos. Negative entropy would then mean movement toward a less random or more ordered state of any particular thing. If we apply this to a system, then entropy tends to increase until the system breaks down in utter chaos. This will occur unless the system is re-charged with additional outside energy. A concrete example of this might be helpful:
Imagine a new car just coming off an assembly line. It has taken a great deal of energy to find, refine, forge, weld, and paint the metal parts of this car. This same concept also applies to all the other components of the car. This energy and organisation constitute a highly organised state, or, in other words, a state of negative entropy.
What happens next illustrates entropy. The car is purchased. Whether it is driven hard or just sits in the garage does not matter in the long run because what happens to the car is that it starts to fall apart. This change may be small at first and may only occur at the molecular level, but it occurs nevertheless. The engine, transmission, paint, rubber, electronics, etc. all will fail with time. Even it the car just sits in the garage, in a thousand years the metal will eventually oxidise. Finally, the car rusts away forming a reddish brown heap. This is exactly the opposite of the organisation and energy used to put the car together. This disorganisation is entropy. The only thing which will reverse this, as we all know, are additional inputs of energy by the owner in the form of maintenance and repairs.
All things in a relative state of order move toward a state of disorder. In terms of heat, heat will always flow into a colder place from a warmer place. When something is heated there is a rise in its entropy. With increasing heat its molecules move faster and faster in random chaos, just as a bomb does when it explodes. Increasing heat means increasing randomness and chaos which is entropy. Cold, then, can be seen in terms of negative entropy. Any cold object is simply more organised and less random than the same object once it is heated.
Schappeller had something to say about the Second Law of Thermodynamics. He said there was another and unknown thermodynamic cycle which runs opposite the Second Law. To name this idea we will call it "Reverse Thermodynamics". It is the reverse of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in that it leads to an increase in entropy. Not only is there an increase in order but there is an increase in cold! Schappeller, according to Mr. Watson's letter, built his spherical device primarily to demonstrate the principles behind this Reverse Thermodynamics. It was not designed as a practical machine.
To demonstrate the difference between the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Reverse Thermodynamics two theoretical machines shall be examined. Actually, a machine running according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics is not theoretical at all. Combustion machines are of this type. For simplicity sake we will use a wood burning stove such as the type invented by Benjamin Franklin for the heating of a house.
Wood is put in a hollow iron vessel with an adjustable hole at one end. The adjustable hole allows atmospheric oxygen in. An initial small input of heat is added to the wood and oxygen until burning occurs. A great deal of heat is produced once the wood begins to burn. We know heat expands. Carbon, carbon dioxide and water vapour are also produced as by-products of the combustion. Entropy is increased. Since entropy is increased, so is pollution so perhaps we all can agree that this is a good example of the destructive technology so characteristic of the world in which we live.
In our example of a theoretical Reverse Thermodynamic machine the by-products of the previous example can be used as fuel. But Schappeller's machine has the additional property of being creative, that is, negatively entropic. Schappeller believed this creative process to be individualistic, so we need a specific template to use as a pattern for this creation. Heat, water, and carbon dioxide are fed into this machine. Quite amazingly, oxygen is yielded as a by-product of this reaction! The heat is also absorbed in Schappeller's Reverse Thermodynamic machine! This absorption of heat is another way of saying that the machine is implosive in nature rather than expansive or explosive as was the heat producing machine. What is most amazing, however, is that entropy is actually reduced yielding, something which has been created -wood!
Actually, this machine is not theoretical either. It exists and works as we speak. These machines are all around us. We call these machine "life". In this case our machine is a tree. In the tree, energy, sunlight, is absorbed and combined in a cold process with water and carbon dioxide to form wood. The template used as a pattern for this seemingly intelligent, creative, process is simply a seed. In this type of reaction the "cold” force is something other than the absence of heat. This cold is an active cold. It is a "densifying", implosive cold. It is a life-giving cold. This is a cold, life giving force. To quote Watson: "This process is life force and the reverse of the second law of thermodynamics; it is the vital force: Vril."
This is one huge difference between the physics of Schappeller and Schauberger and the physics of the Nineteenth Century. The physics of the Nineteenth Century explain everything in terms of the inanimate. Laws of physics are written using inanimate examples. Chemical reactions are described which stem from inanimate models. Animate models are simply made to conform with the inanimate assuming that life is just a special case which eventually will be shown to be nothing but chemistry and so subject to the same Second Thermodynamic Law as the inanimate. Schappeller and Schauberger both say in their own ways that this is not so. They say, each in their own ways, that a new and different law of thermodynamics applies to living forces. They say that this more akin to a life process than previous theories allow. They say this force is creative. Those who subscribed to these new ideas claimed that it was not only a new physical law but a new science and that Germany would lead the way in this new science. Let us take a closer look at what is claimed to be the physics behind this new science.
The first concept to be considered is cold. Cold in this sense does not mean the mere absence of heat. This is interstellar cold, the cold found in the vacuum of space. In this relative vacuum, matter is not found in sufficient quantity to be used to measure this cold. Think about how we measure cold. We measure matter which is cold. We measure the heat in air or water for instance. In the absence of matter how would cold be measured? There is no doubt that if we could, for instance, place a thermometer in a glass of water in deep space, the temperature recorded would be at or very near absolute zero, 0O Kelvin or -273O Centigrade or -460O Fahrenheit.
The presence or absence of matter in deep space may be the subject of conjecture. The presence or absence of energy in deep space is something universally accepted. For instance, we all know that light passes through interstellar space. We see the proof when we look up at the stars, planets or the moon. Besides visible light, other electromagnetic radiations freely pass through space. These include x-ray, gamma and cosmic rays. Yet besides electromagnetic radiation many people now believe that in the depths of space there resides another form of energy with is found there as well as everywhere else all around us. This energy sometime goes by the name of "zero-point energy" but for our purposes we can simply call it "aether energy". It is sometimes argued that this energy is really the result of aether rather than the aether itself and that aether really is matter. For a moment, let us postpone this discussion and focus on the vast, stretches of interstellar space which are filled with aether energy, near or at absolute zero.
Mr. Watson points out Dawson's words on page 83 of “The Physics Of The Primary State Of Matter” where he says: "Cold is not therefore the absence of heat, primary heat and cold having nothing to do with molecular action (in the cosmos) there are no molecules available".
The reader may recall that something strange happens to electrical energy at absolute zero. For instance, if a disc of conducting material is held at absolute zero and the disc is given an electric charge, the electric current will circulate around and around the disc forever, never losing its energy as it would if the disc were sitting on an office desk at room temperature. This property of cold is instrumental in the storage of at least one form of energy. The vast stretches of cold interstellar vacuum must be seen as a vast energy storage sea in a state of heightened negative entropy. Schappeller called this undirected matter-energy reserve potential "latent magnetism”. Out of this latent magnetism, both energy and matter could be produced with the corresponding stimulation. The non-excited electromagnetic field was viewed by Schappeller simply as latent magnetism. Matter is a condensation out of bipolar aether. Therefore, electromagnetism is a product of matter and is nothing more than bipolar aether in a different condition. Latent magnetism could be, then, excited into matter. Latent magnetism could be influenced by either of the thermodynamic principles discussed, the Second Law of Thermodynamics or by Reverse Thermodynamics. This vast aether field, whose most notable characteristic is the property of cold, latent and awaiting stimulus, is the predecessor of both energy and matter as we know them.
Since primary cold, this vast reserve of negative entropy potential, is responsible for both matter and energy and since all energy eventually degenerates into heat, it follows that, as Davson puts it, again on page 83: "Primary heat, as may now be understood, is composed of cold energy". This is seems like a surprising play on words, especially from a man of science, nevertheless, this statement follows perfectly from Schappeller's reasoning.
We turn now to Schappeller's concept of "stress". Both heat stress and cold stress can be applied to an electromagnetic field. Heat stress is the usual type of stress applied to electromagnetic fields in secondary physics. Secondary physics is the physics of our everyday world according to Schappeller. Primary physics is the physics dealing with the cold force and aether yielding matter and energy, which constitute the secondary reactions and so Schappeller uses the term "secondary physics" to describe our world as we know it.
An example of heat stressing of the electromagnetic field is the capacitor and the coil. A charged capacitor produces an electric field and a charged coil produces a magnetic field. A charged capacitor and coil, connected by a wire circuit alternately charge and discharge each other, producing electromagnetic radiation unit the heat caused by the resistance of the wire degrades the whole process into heat. Heat stress on the electromagnetism is +/-.
Cold stress on the electromagnetic field is something totally new to our science and technology. It is also seen in terms of +/- but the machines used to produce it are not known in our world. Mr. Watson did not say this but if we return to our examples of heat stressed machines, the capacitor and the coil, the corresponding cold stressed machines might be the Schappeller sphere and the Schappeller coil electret. The sphere collects the charge through the magnets, holds and condenses it in its glowing centre corresponding to the electric field of the capacitor. The internal coils filled with electret produce a magnetic field in the presence of the intense and pulsing electric field. According to my interpretation, the whole Schappeller sphere is a combined capacitor/coil combined into one machine made possible through an initial input of cold stress.
As in our example of the capacitor/coil interaction producing an electromagnetic wave, so an attraction exists between a machine obeying the Second Law of Thermodynamics and one obeying the law of Reverse Thermodynamics. This attraction can lead to interaction. For example, an imploding or centripetal vortex can couple with an exploding or centrifugal vortex. The centripetal vortex is an example of a system following the law of Reverse Thermodynamics while the centrifugal vortex represents system following the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We have all seen these two systems working together in everyday life. The common toilet is such a machine although the centrifugal side forms inside the drain pipe which is out of sight.
Perhaps there is another example which is more germane to our discussion. It is the diagram of the Vril power plant. (This engine diagram is used here as an example for discussion and is not a blind endorsement of the diagram's existence or accuracy.) In this interpretation of this diagram, we are really dealing with two separate devices. First, is the central spherical device which may be a refined version of the Schappeller sphere. An initial charge would be imputed into the sphere to start it after which the unit would continue to gather up the surrounding energy. This is a Reverse Thermodynamic machine. The sphere generates a magnetic field which could be offset by rotating the Schappeller device. The offset field would feed and so rotate the arms of the electric generator surrounding the sphere. The electric generator would gather electric energy, feeding the four large broadcasting fixtures on the walls of the saucer. These fixtures might be, for instance, Tesla pancake coils. The electric generator is an example of a machine complying with the Second Thermodynamic Law.
Both components of the power plant are bonded together in a single system since the output energy of the broadcasting fixtures on the walls of the saucer constitute additional input energy for the sphere. The two components attract one another and use and depend upon one another as they circulate and recirculate energy. As the energy level of one component increases so does the energy level of the other. Indeed, the biggest problem facing the use of such an engine may be getting some means of stopping it.
The actual levitation might be the particular electromagnetic radiation coming out of the sphere. In this interpretation, the broadcast fixtures are used to steer the saucer. Davson gives output frequencies for the sphere as 106 (20).
Mr. Watson points out in his letter that one reason machines utilising the Reverse Thermodynamic principle have not been recognised is that a cold stressed magnetic field is a cold machine. Even a centripetal vortex cools rather than heats. All our devices of measurement ultimately measure heat in some form. Measurement of cold is more difficult. The example already given, the problem of measuring temperature in interstellar space in the absence of matter is an example of this problem.
Finally, the reader will recall that Mr. Watson points out that electromagnetism itself manifests bipolarity, yielding four components in all. These are +/- hot electromagnetism and +/- cold electromagnetism. The reader will recall that two hot electromagnetic components can be joined (the capacitor and the coil) and set into a cycle producing an electromagnetic wave. Is it possible that two complementary hot electromagnetic and cold electromagnetic machines could be set into cycle producing not a bi-polar but a quadropolar, 360O radiation to produce gravity, such as the one described by Dr. Richard Le Fores Clark?
Planned Uses for the Schappeller Device
If the above discussion has any meaning at all in the quest for an answer to the UFO question, one use for which the Schappeller device must have been destined was that of a power plant for a flying machine. Was this so? The Schappeller device had many planned uses. In 1930 this device was planned as a source of broadcast energy, reminiscent of Tesla, for both German homes and industry. The device could also be used as a generator, battery, transformer, or antenna (21). It is reported that toward the end of the war the SS researched the possibility of using this device in the form of a death ray (22). But additionally, and in answer to our question, the Schappeller device was envisioned as a levitation device for a flying machine. Here is some of that discussion from our sources:
"The new dynamic technology will, in the future, be able to drive electric locomotives and cars without the manufacture of costly armatures and everywhere through connection to the atmospheric voltage network. Hypothetically, is certainly the installation of a sufficient number of central amplification facilities which transports from the Ur-Machine the specific magnetic impulse from the dynamic spherical element. New types of aircraft with magneto-static power devices and steering, which are completely crash and collision proof, could be built for a fraction of the cost of today's aircraft and without the lengthy training of everyone who will be servicing these aircraft". (From "Vril Die Kosmische Urkraft Wiedergeburt von Atlantis” by Johannes Taeufer, page 48).
"Our goal must be to drive forward the space ship problem to new understanding and realisation! Here a definite postulate can be established: "A spherical space ship with its own atmosphere” also technical creation of small planets with world dynamic propulsion and buoyancy! Will this be possible? -- Major powers in the world prepare themselves in any case presently, especially in Germany."
The above from “Weltdynamismus Streifzuege durch technisches Neuland an Hand von biologischen Symbolen” pages 11 and 12. Please note the use of the words "spherical space ship"(Kugelraumschiff).
From Davson’s “The Physics Of The Primary State Of Matter”, page 240: "The Rotor is laminated to prevent eddying and the magnets do not project; the Rotor periphery is thus entirely equi-radial. The Rotor is fixed to the shaft to be driven and the Stator is fixed about a metre above the earth's surface. The latter is, of course, flexible because the earth can include the sea or even the floor of an aether-ship."
From Davson, page 199: "As has already been explained, the new Technique will not concern itself with the air as a supporting medium, but directly with the aether. Therefore, the body may be a vertical sealed cylinder with conic ends or any other suitable form. Such a body is obviously rigid and inelastic, and it must contain an aether stress of sufficient intensity to support its mass against thither stress of the earth's stress field, which means that the glowing magnetism core in the Stator, provided in the body to be lifted, must be able to vary its intensity according to the height at which the aether-ship is to be raised and supported whilst in transit, as the aether stress or field, itself, varies inversely as the square of the distance from the earth's surface. The actual design and solution of all the various problems in the production of such ships, the choice of methods of propulsion, whatever independent or directional, belong to the new Technique, whereas here we are only interested in the principle as applied to the problem of Gravitation."
Finally, from Davson, page 177: "Now the reason that an unsupported body falls to the ground is primarily because it has "no hold" on the medium. It was previously explained that any inert mass or body has only a latent stress field which functions merely as the force of cohesion and has no mobility and thus only a latent internal stressfield and no external stress field. This means that it has no "hold" on any elastic medium such as the aether or the air, therefore it must fall, and it falls towards the greater inductive energy.
If the inductive energy, through some exterior cause, could be made suddenly to increase enormously, there would come a point when the body would be supported, or rather suspended, before it reached the earth's surface. The new Technique could accomplish this by placing a Schappeller Stator in the body in question, where the body is suitably constructed, thus setting up a glowing magnetic stressfield which would hold or keep the weight or mass of the unit body suspended, not in the air ”the stress field would have no reaction on the air” but only on the earth's magnetic stress field. This is the basis of the new principle for ‘aether ships’."
Employing the Schappeller mechanism is only half the total explanation. In a field propulsion saucer there are possible two types of "drive" needed. The first is the "Auftrieb" or levitation. Employment of levitation makes the craft buoyant. It weighs nothing. If it weighs nothing it can be moved very easily. "Antrieb", impulse or motive power is the second drive involved. It moves the craft directionally. Levitation only would be supplied by the Schappeller system. Directional movement is so far best explained, in my mind, using the Tesla pancake coils as explained by Bill Lyne.
Concluding Thoughts on the Schappeller Device
In the end, what can be said of the Schappeller device? Certainly, it did exist. It drew attention and funding from people within the German government of the time. It was studied by a qualified outsider, a British engineer, for a period of three years and was judged to be genuine.
However, there are some obvious problems. Exotic energies have been evoked which have not been explained satisfactorily. Therefore, the facts are not yet proven. Certainly more proof is required before the claims made for this device or the energies involved can be wholly accepted. For the time being we must put this discussion aside, awaiting further correlations.
There are some solutions connected with this device also. If we accept the idea that both the Schauberger and the Schappeller devices worked on the theory of implosion, then one explanation will serve to explain them both. It also allows for an aether-as-matter explanation. This may fit into the evidence gathered by Nikola Tesla. The commonality of these devices could then be sought and perhaps a more efficient device built as a result. We will pick up this theme again in the discussion section of this book.
It should be pointed out that the quest for this "new science" is not specific to Schappeller or Schauberger. Mr. Watson passed on these words from Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, a scientist who collaborated with Dr. Rudolf Steiner around 1920. Although he is not happy with the translation, he sent it as he found it which is as it is presented here:
"...the method of science, in a materialistic sense, is based on analysis splitting apart, disintegration, separation, dissecting and all the procedures which have to destroy and take apart, to work on the corpse rather than to grow, to develop, to synthesise. That the human mind was captured by these methods of braking apart: in that I saw the source of our present situation. My question (to Rudolf Steiner) was therefore: is it possible to find another force or energy in nature, which does not have in itself the objective of atomising and analysis but instead builds up, and synthesises? Would we discover that constructive force, which makes things alive and grow, develop adequate building up of methods investigation, eventually use this force for another type of technic, applied to drive machines, than because of the inner nature of this force or energy we might be able to create another technology, social structure, constructive thinking of man rather than destructive thinking? This force must have the impulse of life, of organisation within itself as the so-called physical energies have the splitting, separating trend within themselves.”
My question to Rudolf Steiner in October 1920 and spring 1921 therefore was: “Does such a force or source of energy exist? Can it be demonstrated? Could an altruistic technic be build upon it?"
My questions were answered as follows: "Yes, such a force exists, but is not yet discovered. It is what is generally known the aether (not the physical aether) but the force which makes things grow, lives for instance in the seed as Samenkraft. Before you can work with this force you must demonstrate its presence. As we have reagents in chemistry, so you must find a reagent for the aetheric force. It is also called formative aetheric force because it is the force which relates the form, shape, pattern of a living thing - growth. You might try crystallisation processes to which organic substrata are added. It is possible then to develop machines, which react upon, and are driven by, this force. Rudolf Steiner then outlined the principles of the application of this force as source of a new energy..."
Since this quest for a new science with the accompanying new machines had a relatively long history in Germany, certainly pre- dating the 3rd Reich, it is almost certain that the Schappeller device or others built along a similar understanding were further developed during the Nazi period. What became of it after the war is not known. It can be assumed that this device did not escape the scrutiny of the numerous Allied intelligence units tasked with combing Germany for examples of German science. Perhaps someday a government report will be de-classified explaining all this as it was in the case of another free-energy machine, that being the Hans Coler device, which was declassified by the British in 1978 (23) and which worked, according to Mr. Watson, using the same principles of cold magnetism. Until that final reckoning comes, aspects of the Schappeller device will still remain a mystery. And until a more final reckoning comes, the question of whether or not the Schappeller device was used as a source of field propulsion in German flying saucers, must be deferred.
Sources and References
- Bahn, Peter, Ph.D. and Heiner Gehring, 1997, pages 120-131, Per Vril-Mythos Eine geheimnisvolle Energieform in Esoterik,Technik und Therapie, Omega Verlag, Duesseldorf
- Taeufer, Johannes, 1930, page 31."Vril" Die KosmischeUrkraft Wiedergeburt von Atlantis, commissioned and distributed by the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft "Das kommenden de Deutschland", Astrologischer Verlag Wilhelm Becker, Berlin-steglitz
- Bahn/Gehring, 1997, page 131
- Bahn/Gehring, 1997, pages 120-124, 130
- Weltdynamismus Streifzuege durch technisches Neuland an Hand von bioloaischen Symbolen, 1930. pages 14-15, commissioned and distributed by the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft "Das Kommenden de Deutschland", Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, Berlin
- Davson, Cyril W., 1955, pages 50-59, The Physics Of The Primary State Of Matter And Application Through the Primary Technique, Elverton Books, London
- Nieper, Hans A., Ph.D., 1985, Conversion of Gravity Field Energy/Revolution in Technology. Medicine and Society. M.I.T. Management Interessengemeinschaft fuer Tachyonen-Geld-EnergyGmbH, Friedrlch-Rueder-Strasse 1, 2900 Oldenbuurg, Germany (available in German and English language versions)
- Davson, Cyril W., 1955, pages 212-213
- Davson, Cyril W., page 231
- Davson, Cyril W., pages 217, 223
- Taeufer, 1930, pages 30-32
- Davson, 1955, page 230
- Davson, 1955, page 226
- Taeufer, 130, page 30
- Taeufer, page 32
- Davson, 1955, page 231
- Davson, 1955, page 231
- Davson, 1955, page 57
- Taeufer, 1930, pages 38-40
- Clark, Richard Le Fors, Ph.D., 1987, page 64, "The Earth Grid, Human Levitation And Gravity Anomalies", contained in Anti-Gravity And The World Grid edited by David Hatcher Childress, Adventures Unlimited Press, Stelle, Illinois
- Stevens, Henry, 2001, "Infinite Energy", pages 9-13, Volume 7, Issue 40
- Davson, 1955, page 244
- Bahn/Gehring, 1997, page 115
- British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee Final Report Number 1043, item number 31, "The Invention Of Hans Coler, Relating To An Alleged New Source Of Power, Bryanston Square, London
Condensation-Induced Water Hammer.
There is another little-known effect which has a high potential for being a useful technique, and this is the water hammer effect produced by the sudden condensation of steam. Under suitable conditions, the effect can be harnessed to provide motive power.
One of the techniques which has been used is shown above. Here, steam under 55 psi pressure is forced into a tubular structure through a ring orifice. That steam then passes through a doughnut-shaped nozzle where it hits a stream of heavily aerated water. The bubbles in the stream of water are drawn in by the venturi effect of the water flow past small apertures in the tube. The result is a rapid series of water hammer shock waves which, because of the shape of the shock wave chamber, boost the water as it exits from the tube. This produces a thrust in the opposite direction, effectively forming a jet engine which is particularly suited to water-borne vessels. In the diagram shown above, the device shown is designated as an Underwater Jet Engine. The diagram is from this web display and is copyright of the New Scientist.
Further information on this form of energy can be found: here and at this forum.
William Hyde's Electrostatic Power Generator. This is best described by his patent, a slightly re-worded being shown here:
This patent describes a device which can be a little difficult to visualise and so some colour shading of parts has been used to help matters. Essentially, it is two circular rotors spinning inside a section of plastic pipe. These rotors generate electrostatic energy which people have mistakenly been led to believe is not a source of significant power (despite Hermann Plauston producing hundreds of kilowatts of power from it). This design by William Hyde has an electrical output which is some ten times greater than the mechanical input power required. A Coefficient Of Performance = 10 result like this, has to be significant, especially since the device is of fairly simple construction.
Patent US 4,897,592 30th January 1990 Inventor: William W. Hyde
Externally charged electrodes of an electrostatic generator induce charges of opposite polarity on segments of a pair of confronting stators by means of electric fields within which a pair of rotors are confined during rotation to vary the charge binding field linkages between confronting rotors and stators by a shielding action of the rotors in a plane perpendicular to the field flux. A high electric potential difference induced between the stators resulting from such rotation of the rotors, is transformed by an output circuit into a reduced DC voltage applied to a load with a correspondingly increase current conducted through it.
US Patent References:
2522106 Electrostatic machine Sep 1950 Felici 310/309 3013201 Self-excited variable capacitance electrostatic generator Dec 1961 Goldie 322/2A 4127804 Electrostatic energy conversion system Nov 1973 Breaux 322/2A 4151409 Direct current variable capacitance electric generator Apr 1979 O'Hare 250/212 4595852 Electrostatic generator Jun 1986 Gundlach 310/309 4622510 Parametric electric machine Nov 1986 Cap 322/2A
This invention relates to the generation of electrical power by conversion of energy from an electrostatic field. The conversion of energy from a static electric field into useful electrical energy by means of an electrostatic generator is already well known in the art as exemplified by the disclosures in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,522,106, 3,013,201, 4,127,804, 4,151,409 and 4,595,852. Generally, the energy conversion process associated with such prior art electrostatic generators involves the input of mechanical energy to separate charges so that a considerable portion of the output is derived from the conversion of mechanical energy.
It is therefore an important object of the present invention to provide an electrostatic generator in which electrical power is derived from the energy of static electric fields with a minimised input of mechanical power.
In accordance with the present invention, static electric fields are established between electrodes externally maintained at charge levels of opposite polarity and a pair of internal stator discs having segmental surfaces that are dielectrically spaced to confine thereon charges induced by the electric fields. A pair of rotor discs are rotated within continuous electric fields in planes perpendicular to the field flux to locationally vary the charge linkage established by the electric fields between the electrodes and stator discs. Such changes in charge linkage are effected by rotation of electrically conductive segments of the rotor angularly spaced from each other to partially shield the stator discs from the electric fields. The segments of each rotor disc have charged faces confronting the electrodes in its field to shield the stator disc over a total face area that is one-half the total area of the confronting segment surfaces on the stator disc to which the induced charges are confined. Charges on the rotors and stators are equalised by electrical interconnections established through the rotor shafts. The stator discs are electrically interconnected with an electrical load through an output circuit transforming a high potential between the stator discs into a reduced dc voltage to conduct a correspondingly multiplied current through the load.
Brief Description of the Drawings:
These and other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the preferred embodiments thereof with reference to the accompanying drawings in which like parts or elements are denoted by the same reference numbers throughout all of the different views shown in the drawings and where:
Fig.1 is a simplified electrical circuit diagram corresponding to the energy conversion system of the present invention.
Fig.2 is a side section view of an electrostatic generator embodying the system of Fig.1 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.
Fig.3 and Fig.4 are partial section views taken substantially through planes indicated by section lines 3--3 and 4--4 in Fig.2.
Fig.5A and Fig.5B are schematic partial laid out top views of the electrostatic generator of Figs.2-4, under static and dynamic charge distribution conditions, respectively.
Fig.6 is an electrical circuit diagram of the output circuit of the generator shown in Fig.2, in accordance with one embodiment.
Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiment:
Referring now to the drawings in detail, Fig.1 diagrammatically depicts the energy conversion system of the present invention generally referred to by reference numeral 10. As shown in Fig.1, the system includes a pair of electrostatic fields 12 and 14 established by electrostatic charges of opposite polarity applied to electrode plates 16 and 18 from some external energy source. Thus, the electrostatic field 12 is established between electrode 16 and a stator disc 20 while the electrostatic field 14 is established between electrode 18 and a stator disc 22. In accordance with the present invention, electrostatic charge linkages established by the flux of the fields between the electrodes and stators are periodically varied by displacement within the continuous energy fields 12 and 14 in response to rotation of rotors 24 and 26 aligned with planes perpendicular to their common rotational axis and the field flux, as will be described.
The rotors are mechanically interconnected with an electric motor 28, as diagrammatically illustrated in Fig.1, which rotates them around their common axis. Electrical energy may be extracted from the electric fields 12 and 14 during rotation of the rotors 24 and 26 (by motor 28) through an output circuit generally referred to by the reference number 30. The output circuit 30 as shown in a simplified fashion in Fig.1, includes two pairs of current-conducting diodes 32A, 32B and 34A, 34B. The diodes of each pair are connected with opposite polarity and each pair is connected in parallel to one of the stators 20 and 22. The diodes of each pair are also electrically connected across an electrical load represented by resistors 36A and 36B with capacitor networks 38A and 38B interconnected between each pair of diodes by means of which the voltage potential between the stators 20 and 22 is reduced in favour of an increased current through the electrical load.
Referring now to Figs 2, 3 and 4 in particular, a physical embodiment of the energy conversion system shown in Fig.1 is shown. The electrodes 16 and 18 are in the form of circular plates or discs made of an electrically conductive metal having external surfaces 40 and 42 adapted to be charged from the external source as already mentioned. The internal surface 44 of electrode 18 is thereby adapted to maintain a positive charge opposite in polarity to the negative charge of the electrode 16 which is maintained in a stable ion form within a dielectric surface portion 46 of the electrode 16. The energy conversion system may be enclosed within an outer housing 48 to which the electrodes 16 and 18 are secured.
With continued reference to Fig.2, the stators 20 and 22 mounted by housing 48 in axially fixed spaced relation to the electrodes 16 and 18 are provided with bearings 50 and 52 supporting the powered rotor shaft driving the shaft assembly which has electrically conductive shaft sections 54 and 56 to which the rotors 24 and 26 are respectively connected. In the embodiment illustrated in Fig.2, the drive motor 28 is mechanically interconnected with the shaft sections 54 and 56 through an electrically nonconductive shaft section 58 of the power shaft assembly for the simultaneous rotation of both rotors 24 and 26 at the same speed and in the same direction about their common rotational axis perpendicular to the parallel spaced planes with which the electrode and stator discs are aligned. The electrically conductive shaft sections 54 and 56 are respectively keyed or secured in any suitable fashion to hub portions 60 and 62 of the rotors and are provided with flange portions 64 and 66 forming electrical wipers in contact with confronting surfaces of the stators 20 and 22, which are inductively charged by the static electric fields 12 and 14 to equal levels of opposite polarity.
As more clearly seen in Fig.2 and Fig.3, the rotor 24 has several angularly spaced, field linkage controlling segments 68 projecting radially outwards from the hub portion 60. Each rotor segment 68 is made of an electrically conductive metal having a face 70 on one axial side confronting the adjacent electrode 16. The faces 70 confronting the electrode 16 are charged positively by the electric field 12 extending between the dielectric surface portion 46 of electrode 16 and the stator disc 20. While the electric field 12 projects through the spaces 72 between the rotor segments 68, the rotor segments 68 themselves shield portions of the stator disc 20 from the electric field.
The rotor 26 is similarly formed with rotor segments 74 angularly spaced from each other by spaces 76 through which the electric field 14 extends between the positively charged surface 44 of electrode 18 and the stator 22. The rotor segments 74 of rotor 26 as shown in Fig.2, are provided with dielectric surface portions 78 confronting the internally charged surface 44 of electrode 18. While the rotor segments 74 are negatively charged by the electric field 14 within the surface portions 78, they also shield portions of the stator disc 22 from the electric field as in the case of the rotor segments 68 already described. The internal dielectric surface portion 46 of electrode 16 and dielectric surface portions 78 of rotor 26 act as a stabiliser to prevent eddy currents and leakage of negative charge. Further, in view of the electrical connections established between the rotors and the stator discs, the charge on each stator is equalised with that of the charge on its associated rotor.
closely spaced from each other by dielectric spacers 80. The segments 82 are electrically interconnected with the rotor segments 68 through rotor shaft section 54. Similarly, the segments 84 of the stator 22 are electrically interconnected with the rotor segments 74 through rotor shaft section 56. The stator segments 82 and 84 are therefore also made of electrically conductive metal. Each of the segments 82 of stator 20 is electrically interconnected through the output circuit 30 with each of the segments 84 of the stator. The stator discs being fixedly mounted within the housing 48, centrally mount the bearings 50 and 52 through which the electrically nonconductive motor shaft section 58 is journaled as shown in the embodiment of the invention illustrated in Fig.2. Further, the total area of the charged segment surfaces on each of the stator discs is greater than the total area of the faces 70 or 78 on the segments of each associated rotor disc 24 or 26. According to one embodiment, the total charged stator surface area is twice that of the rotor face area.
According to the embodiment of the invention illustrated in Fig.6, the output circuit 30 includes the two oppositely poled capacitive circuit networks 38A and 38B connected across each aligned pair of stator segments 82 and 84 on the stators 20 and 22 by means of the oppositely poled diodes 32A and 34A. Each of these capacitive circuit networks includes a capacitor 86, the opposite sides of which are connected by oppositely poled diodes 88 and 90 to positive and negative load terminals 92 and 94 across which a suitable electrical voltage is established for operating an electrical load. The diode 88 is connected to the junction 102 between diode 104 and one side of capacitor 106. The diode 88 is also connected to the junction between one side of capacitor 100 and the diode 32A. The diode 90, on the other hand, is interconnected with the junction 96 between diode 108 and capacitor 100. Also, diode 90 is connected to the junction between the other side of capacitor 106 and the diode 34A. The foregoing circuit arrangement of capacitive network 38A is the same as that of network 38B by means of which aligned pairs of the stator segments 82 and 84 have the electrical potentials between them transformed into a lower voltage across the load terminals 92 and 94 to conduct a higher load current.
Fig.5A illustrates the distribution of charges established in the electric fields 12 and 14 between the electrodes and stators under static conditions in which each of the rotor segments 68 and 74 are positioned in alignment with one of the stator segments 82 and 84 to thereby shield alternate stator segments from the electric fields. The charges established by the electric fields are therefore confined to the faces of alternate stator segments confronting the electrodes and are equalised with the charges established on and confined to the shielding faces of the rotor segments confronting the electrodes by virtue of the electrical interconnection between the rotors and stators as already mentioned. As depicted in Fig.5B, when the rotors are rotated, the charge linkages established by the electric fields between the electrodes and alternate stator segments 82 or 84 are interrupted by the moving rotor segments 68 or 74 so that previously shielded stator segments become exposed to the fields to re-establish field energy linkages with the associated electrodes. Such action causes electrical potentials to be established between the stator segments 82 and 84.
It will be apparent from the foregoing description that the electrostatic energy fields 12 and 14 of opposite polarity are established maintained between the externally charged electrodes 16 and 18 and the internally charged stators 20 and 22 under static conditions as depicted in Fig.5A. During rotation, the rotors 24 and 26 continuously positioned within the energy fields 12 and 14, exert forces in directions perpendicular to the field flux representing the energy linkages between electrodes and stators to cause interruptions and re-establishment of energy linkages with portions of different stator segments as depicted in Fig.5B. Such energy linkage locational changes and the charge binding and unbinding actions between electrodes and stators creates an electrical potential and current to flow between stators through the output circuit 30. Thus, the output circuit when loaded extracts energy from the electric fields 12 and 14 as a result of the field linkage charge binding and unbinding actions induced by rotation of the rotors. The stator segments 82 and 84 shielded from the electric fields by the moving rotor segments 68 and 74 as depicted in Fig.5B, have electric potentials of polarity opposite to those of the external electrodes 16 and 18 because of the field linkage charge unbinding action. Previously shielded stator segments being exposed to the electric fields by the moving rotor segments, have the same electric potential polarity as those of the external electrodes because of field linkage binding action. Since the forces exerted on the respective rotors by the electric fields 12 and 14 of opposite polarity act on the common rotor shaft assembly perpendicular to these fields, such forces cancel each other. The energy input to the system may therefore be substantially limited to mechanical bearing losses and windage during conversion of electrostatic field energy to electrical energy as well as electrical resistance losses and other electrical losses encountered in the output circuit 30.
Based upon the foregoing operational characteristics, rotation of the rotors in accordance with the present invention does not perform any substantial work against the external electric fields 12 and 14 since there is no net change in capacitance thereby enabling the system to convert energy with a reduced input of mechanical energy and high efficiency, as evidenced by minimal loss of charge on the electrodes. It was therefore found that working embodiments of the present invention require less than ten percent of the electrical output energy for the mechanical input. Further, according to one prototype model of the invention, a relatively high output voltage of 300,000 volts was obtained across the stators. By reason of such high voltage, an output circuit 30 having a voltage reducing and current multiplying attribute as already described, was selected so as to render the system suitable for many practical applications.
The Suppression of Knowledge. The basis for how we live our lives and understand the things around us, society, personal relationships, family values and the like, is rooted in what we are told by “the authorities”. Unfortunately, much of what you have been told is just not true. You have been lied to about science, astronomy, the environment, global warming, government, taxation, war, energy, inventions, education, terrorism, health, finance and the media, to name a few that spring to mind.
Science: There has been, and still is, systematic, deliberate, and frequently brutal suppression of scientific fact. We are being told that you have to “burn a fuel” in order to produce power which is then “consumed” when we use it to power our lives. This is a deliberate lie. We are told “scientific” things which are sheer fantasy and designed to keep the truth from us. The objective is to keep the people of this planet ignorant, weak, and subject to the people who know the real facts, and to remove all possible wealth from the ordinary person.
Astronomy: We are told that the only way we can get into space is to use rockets. The people who say this not only know it is a lie, but they themselves have had electrogravitic drive vehicles for at least fifty years now. This sort of rubbish is roughly the equivalent of telling people that they can only get around by hopping on one foot. We are told that the speed of light is a constant and that is a lie. We are told that nothing can go faster than the speed of light, and that is a lie. We are told that gravity depends on mass, and that is a lie. We are told that the Earth is the only planet in our solar system which has an atmosphere, and that is a lie. In fact, almost all of what we are told is incorrect.
The Environment: We are told that we need to run our lives by burning “fossil fuels” which are limited in quantity and so there is “an energy crisis”. While some oil is produced by the decay of organisms and vegetation laid down in earlier eras, oil wells which were pumped supposedly dry are actually filling up again with oil created in the crust of the Earth and which does not come from decaying vegetation and organisms. Nor is there the slightest need to burn oil for power, or have central power stations and fragile wires running all over the countryside. Those things are wanted by the powerful elite in order to control ordinary people and to part them from their money.
Global Warming: We are told that man’s burning of fossil fuels is causing global warming through the production of Carbon Dioxide. This is the most ridiculous rubbish possible. Carbon dioxide is a natural gas, essential for plant growth, which in turn is essential for our survival. Carbon dioxide levels have long since reached the level where any increase has almost no further effect on warming. The percentage produced by man is trivial, as the vast majority comes out of volcanoes, the next largest amount is produced by animals and insects, and man’s contribution is minor. Global warming and global cooling are natural events which were taking place long before man was around in any significant numbers and certainly, centuries before the burning of fossil fuels started. The contribution from all of the cars in all of the would is only about 1.7% of man’s minor contribution and the fussing about “carbon footprint” is only a con which is being used to extract more money from the ordinary person.
David Archibald in this document, published the graph shown here in 2006:
This graph clearly shows that even a big increase in the carbon dioxide level has almost no impact on atmospheric temperature. It has also been calculated that an increase to 620 ppm would give a temperature increase of only 0.16oC. The graph shown above, together with its calculations should have ended any further discussion about reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, this has most definitely not been the case.
For political and financial reasons, a decision has apparently been taken to keep up the pressure on carbon dioxide reductions, resulting in senseless investments on new technology for capture and storing carbon dioxide, “beautiful” windmills absolutely everywhere and the mandatory use of biofuel. Don’t forget about all the revenue which governments are getting from "climate taxes".
All these taxes and the massive spending of taxpayers money, really threatens the economic foundations of the whole of the western world, but worse still are the consequences of the commitment to biofuel. This mad strategy has caused a near doubling of the cost of cooking oil and essential foods such as rice, because farmland is now being used for the production of biofuel. These increases are hitting poor countries the worst as the people can no longer afford to pay the price of basic necessities.
If the intention of the IPPC and the world’s politicians is to starve people to death, then they are definitely on the right track through their continued insistence on the supposedly harmful effects of carbon dioxide. In reality, the greenhouse gas which has the most effect is actually water vapour which accounts for about 98% of all warming. I wonder how the politicians are going to prevent water vapour from getting into our atmosphere !
In his video “An Inconvenient Truth” Al Gore points out the close correlation between the fluctuations of global temperatures and the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. He point out strong rises and falls in the average global temperature (nearly all of which are before mankind started burning oil) and the related strong rises and falls of carbon dioxide concentration in the air. What he is very careful to avoid mentioning is that the changes in carbon monoxide concentration, lag behind the global temperature changes by some 600 years. The carbon dioxide concentrations are a result of the global warming and not the cause of it.
Government and Taxation: It appears that the sole purpose of government is to enrich the people in power at the expense of the ordinary person. People in a democracy are supposed to be “free” but this is a gross illusion. If you were working all week in a company and at the end of the week you were paid £1,000 cash. When you start going home, an armed gang of thugs threatens you and steals £800 of your £1,000 and that happens every week without fail. So, what do you think of that arrangement? Good or bad? That is what government does for you at this time. But, you say, “we live in a democracy, so we can fire the politicians”. That is the equivalent of having three exits from your workplace and each exit has a different gang of thugs ready to rob you. Yes, indeed, you have choice. You can choose which exit to use and therefore, which particular gang of thugs robs you.
You think that is overstating the case? I have seen it calculated that 80% of everything you earn is taken away from you in “taxes” and there is justification for that figure when you consider what contributes to the cost of everything you do. You pay taxes. Can you remember being asked if you would be willing to pay tax?
Oh, but you say, we need taxes in order to pay for public services, health, education, transport, etc. Yes we do, but how much of your money actually goes on that. In the UK there is a large annual “car tax” which was introduced with the excuse that it was needed to finance the building and repair of roads. I understand that at least 85% of that money is not spent on the roads. There is a massive tax on vehicle fuel and I have seen the figure of 85% mentioned. If that is the case, fuel should only be one sixth of the price charged and that extra cost finds it’s way into almost everything else, food, clothes, electrical goods, all manufactured items, heating, electricity supply, gas supply, etc. etc. In addition, there are major taxes on alcohol, tobacco, service industries, travel, and everything else that ‘politicians’ can think up. So you’re a free person living in a free democracy? Who are you kidding? Do you actually have “sucker” stamped on your forehead? For further information, visit this website where the facts are laid out clearly.
Take the case of America. The objective of the Civil War was to make money for the unscrupulous. A really major fraud was perpetrated on the American people at that time. They believed (and most still do) that the United States is the government of the American nation. That is not the case. “The United States of America” is actually a commercial conglomerate of private corporations, corporations with names like “The State of Arizona”, or, “The State of Texas”. Federal taxes are imposed on the American people, but that goes directly into the private finances of these companies and not a single dollar of it goes to benefit any ordinary American citizen. There is much more detail on this in Chapter 15.
War: The general public is held subject to what passes for ‘government’ through fear and ignorance. The government announces that some country needs to be attacked and invaded in order to “free” the people and establish democracy. So, generally without any realistic reason, that country is attacked and invaded, much of the civilian population killed, massive property damage inflicted, and great distress and hardship caused for many people. This is organised by the politicians. Do they themselves take part in the fighting? No. Who benefits from the war? Answer: the arms manufacturers, and companies such as Halliburton which are paid taxation money to rebuild what the local army has just spent time destroying. The country attacked is likely to have it’s assets stolen and then be saddled with a massive fake debt so that it can be forced to pay incredible amounts of “interest” for decades afterwards. The lucky country has been attacked, damaged, citizens killed, infrastructure destroyed, assets stolen and then robbed for years afterwards by the people who caused that devastation. You did say that you live in “a free democracy”, didn’t you?
Energy: The energy companies are very keen to sell you fuel for you to burn to “get” energy to run your vehicles, home appliances, heating, etc. They are also very keen that you should not discover that you are surrounded by energy which can be used for all those things without paying the local energy company anything. Most people imagine that the electrical power which flows out of the wall socket in your home (and for which you have to pay a good deal), comes along the wires from the generator station which burns fossil fuel to drive the generators. That is not the case, as not a single electron of the current you use actually comes from the power station but instead is collected locally from free environmental energy. If you knew how to do it, then you would have no need for the power company, power lines across the country, power stations or oil drilling and shipment around the world. Cars don’t need fuel to run but that information is heavily suppressed and you are lied to when you are told that you need to burn a fuel to power your life.
Inventions: When they discover that there is such a thing as free-energy, most people think that what is needed is a scientific breakthrough in order to develop the technology needed to let everyone have free energy. The reality is quite the reverse as the technology has been discovered and implemented literally thousands of times. You are being lied to when you are told that free-energy is “impossible”. I am reliably informed that in America alone, more than 40,000 free-energy patents have been confiscated by the (private company called the) Patent Office. Inventors are then silenced by a gag order under the absurd excuse that the invention is “of National Security importance”. Inventors who don’t try to patent their inventions are intimidated, some are murdered, some are attacked and their reputation smeared, some are illegally put in mental institutions, some are framed and all suffer massive financial opposition if they try to start manufacturing a product for sale – not even Cal-Tech managed to get past that financial block. I personally know several researchers who have been unlawfully intimidated.
Education: There is a massive program of “dumbing-down” education combined with the deliberate teaching of things which are known to be completely wrong. After only a few decades of this, many adults can’t perform basic arithmetic or construct simple sentences in their native tongue. Science and Engineering are neglected and most people don’t understand how things work. Most schools no longer allow schoolchildren to perform experiments in chemistry or physics, usually with the excuse that it is ‘too dangerous’. University students are told that there is no such thing as perpetual motion, which is as laughable as saying that water isn’t wet. Newton actually said that gravity is a push and not a pulling force as indicated by the mis-translation of his Latin original text. This incorrect notion of gravity is still taught in spite of the fact that many governments have had electrogravitic drive vehicles since the early 1960s, driven by electromagnetic waves just below the frequency of infrared, disproving what is supposed to be Newton’s theory, in a most resounding fashion. Any academic who steps out of line and admits that students are being taught rubbish, is immediately attacked with every possible means to discredit, ridicule and isolate him. The objective in all of this is to manoeuvre the general public into a weak position where they are ignorant, uneducated, fed false information and distracted with things of no importance. The ultimate aim is the slavery of the masses without them even realising that they are being enslaved.
Terrorism: The main way to make people give up their rights and do whatever you want is through fear. The book “1984” (dated that way because it was written in 1948) explains how this is done. Fictitious enemies are invented in order to frighten people and stop them complaining when vast amounts of their money is given to vested interests under the guise of being steps to protect them from this imagined danger. The “cold war” was completely fake with both sides using it as an excuse. The invasion of smaller countries is never, ever, for the reason given publicly, but is always for financial gain by the people in power and their commercial colleagues. The reasons given for these invasions are so ridiculous that it never ceases to amaze me that the public actually accept and believe these wild stories. One of the strands of this continuous deception waged against the public is fake “terrorism”, frequently bolstered up by “false flag” attacks to discredit the perfectly innocent people who are supposed to have made those attacks. Any real terrorist attacks are normally a response to atrocities committed against the supposed “terrorists”. The commercial companies which pass for governments, are the biggest terrorists around.
Health: The pharmaceuticals industry is one of the biggest money-making operations on the planet. It may come as a shock to you, but they don’t want to cure people. Instead, they want people to go on buying expensive medication at heavily inflated prices. Long term health treatments are their ideal situation as that provides them with a continuous revenue stream. Several people have come up with very effective cures for cancer and other serious illnesses, and those people have received the same unjustifiable, outrageous treatment as do the inventors of free-energy devices. The pharmaceuticals industry is well aware of the highly beneficial effects of colloidal silver, but they will never produce any as they can’t patent it and charge highly inflated prices for it. Consequently, they are not interested as their only objective is to make money, and it is definitely not to cure people.
Finance: Money only has value when backed by something of worth. The largest purchase that most people make is buying a property. This is often done by taking out a mortgage with a financial institution such as a bank or a Building Society. For this, most people sign a mortgage agreement with the bank, agreeing to pay back the mortgage amount plus a large amount of interest, generally over a period of many years. If you default on the repayments, typically after many years of payments, the bank takes your property and sells it in order to gain as much money as they can. What you are not told is that the mortgage agreement is a contract and no contract is valid unless something of worth is offered by both parties and full disclosure of all circumstances is made. The bank does not offer anything of value as it just invents the money, creating it out of thin air and without any backing of something of worth. The bank regulations actually forbids the bank from lending out money deposited by it’s members, so a bank cannot legally enter into any such mortgage agreement backed by the funds deposited with it. Further, no contract is valid unless there is a “wet ink” signature by both parties and a wet ink signature can only be made by a human. A bank cannot make a wet ink signature, nor can some other individual sign a contract on behalf of somebody else, so, no mortgage agreement is actually valid in law. Also, the bank being aware of this and not making it clear to you the mortgagee, is in breach of the “full disclosure” requirement of a contract, which is enough to invalidate the contract anyway. Therefore, if a bank tries to take your property for lack of payments, they are acting unlawfully and are not entitled to do so. They usually get away with it, because most people are not aware of the real facts involved.
The Media: You are expected to believe that the media is an honest and unbiased source of information. The reality is that all of the main media outlets are owned by just a few, very rich individuals, and their objective is not to provide unbiased reporting. It appears that they have three main objectives.
First, they want to make money and objective and truthful reporting does not necessarily help towards that goal. You will never, ever, find honest reporting of anything to do with free-energy or any other positive thing which individuals can do for themselves. For example, if a “report” is made on say, a hydroxy booster to improve mpg and reduce harmful emissions dramatically, it will be arranged that the supposed results show that these thing are not worthwhile. Contrast that with the reality that Dr Scott Cramton can use hydroxy gas to reduce the fuel requirement of any diesel engine by at least 60%. No matter how you try, no major news outlet will every report the honest facts as that could damage the excessive revenue stream of the oil companies.
Second, they want to generate as much fear and worry as possible because doing that over an extended period, causes the average person to be more amenable to having their freedoms taken away from them. It facilitates the introduction of surveillance on everybody, identity papers (birth certificate, driving licence, passport, social security number, voting register, National Census record, etc. – very much in the Nazi occupation style), going to war with countries which have never harmed you, considering people to be dishonourable just on the basis of their nationality, and the like. Try counting the items reported in the daily news which are negative – murders, attacks, dishonesty, deaths through accidents, deaths through natural disasters, kidnappings, piracy, violence, environmental damage, etc. and compare that number to the count of positive things reported on – happy events, acts of kindness, successful ventures, etc. and see what ration you get, day after day, after day. This is not just sales being boosted because people love to read about disaster. Instead, it is a deliberate, long-term policy of psychological warfare against ordinary people.
Third, they deliberately divert the attention of people away from anything of real importance by promoting and encouraging excessive interest in things of no importance. There is a deliberate dumbing-down of almost all TV programs in the UK, the promotion of excessively violent video games, the promotion of trivia such as celebrities and their activities, dieting, gossip, fashion, and other irrelevant topics. They want you to give all of your attention to these things and not notice what is actually going on all around you.
Joseph H. Cater: has produced a book entitled “Ultimate Reality” which is almost impossible to buy at any reasonable price level. In it, he points out many things which he supports with strong evidence. These things seem startling because, and only because, the present educational system deliberately encourages us to believe things which are clearly not true. Google books have a partial copy of the “The Ultimate Reality” here
The things which Joseph Cater states are so unusual that it would be easy to write him off as a crank. However, he backs up what he says, with a considerable body of realistic evidence which makes it very difficult to ignore what he says, in spite of the fact that most of his findings flatly contradict what we have been taught from an early age, and so accept as being reality. Whether or not you accept what he says is entirely up to you, but it is difficult for an honest person to reject his presentation out of hand.
He puts forward a strong case for there being a deliberate programme of scientific misinformation and suppression aimed at keeping the general public completely ignorant as to the actual physical realities of the solar system and the universe in general, and as a result, reality is very far from the popular conception. Mr Cater’s description of matter provides reasoned explanations for a whole range of anomalies which conventional science can’t adequately explain, and he quotes numerous experiments which provide firm evidence that what he is saying has a substantial basis in fact.
Here is a very brief summary of some of what he says in his book “The Ultimate Reality”:
The biggest single factor is in the erroneous theory of sub-atomic particles. Mr Cater states that reality is actually much more simple than conventional theory suggests. The universe is filled with a range of energetic particles which he describes as “higher order ethers” and “lower order ethers”. These ether particles are in continuous random movement at different frequencies and they produce a number of different kinds of composite particles including “Hard electrons” (with which we are already familiar) and “Soft electrons” which have very different properties. Soft electrons can draw hard electrons into themselves, masking the properties of those hard electrons. Combinations of ether particles form photons and all matter is composed of photons and these ether particles.
The operational forces which govern all matter in the universe are only electrostatic force and magnetic force, and the actions of both of these are modified by many different combinations of the two types of electron. As light is composed of photons and as they interact with the two types of electrons, many observed scientific facts have led to wholly incorrect deductions. Mr Cater indicates that the New World Order “elite” carefully foster and support these false conclusions, suppress information and physically alter observations before they reach the public. Mr Cater points out a number of instances where the alteration of data has not been sufficient to suppress the facts.
It is not possible to mention all of the points which Mr Cater makes, so please understand that the following is only a minor selection from a cohesive whole and much of the supporting evidence which he provides in his book is omitted here.
Mr Cater says:
1. The current theory of gravity is completely wrong, and gravity is caused by a component of the electromagnetic spectrum of about one trillion cycles per second (0.3 to 4.3 mm wavelength; located above radar and below the infra-red region). The theory of gravity put forward by Sir Isaac Newton does not account for the amount of deflection of a plumb bob near a mountain. An asteroid as small as 150 miles in diameter, can have a surface gravity about the same as Earth’s and some asteroids have moons of their own orbiting around them. This would be impossible if Newton was right.
As a result of the real cause of gravity, our Moon has a much higher surface gravity than was expected, (and consequently, a serious atmosphere). NASA had a major problem with the lunar landing of 1969 because if the real facts became known, then it would demonstrate that a major section of physics, as it is currently presented, is incorrect and they want to keep things exactly as they are at present. The Moon, in common with most planets, is not solid. When part of the lunar lander was dropped back on to the surface of the Moon, a seismic detector left on the surface showed that the Moon vibrated like a bell for about an hour afterwards. That would not have happened if the Moon were solid.
There is very clear evidence that NASA has censored the Moon landing very heavily, but their attempts at suppression have been flawed and some obvious pointers exist. For example, NASA claimed that the space suits of the astronauts weighed 185 lbs when on Earth. Photographs exist, showing an astronaut leaning over backwards and then regaining his balance. That would be a physical impossibility even under reduced gravity, and this implies that the “life support” systems were actually empty and not needed because there is an atmosphere. The high surface gravity is also seen when the astronauts ran. Even the slowed-down version released by NASA can’t conceal the length of the steps and the height off the ground which are the same as they would be on Earth.
If the Moon had one sixth of the Earth’s gravity as is claimed by conventional science, then the point at which the gravitational pull of the Earth balances that of the Moon would be about 22,000 miles from the Moon. The Encyclopaedia Britannica states this distance as being about 40,000 miles, which agrees with various other sources. That could only be so if the Moon’s surface gravity were much higher than the supposed one sixth of Earth’s gravity.
On more than one occasion, an Apollo astronaut tripped and fell on his face. Under one sixth gravity, that just would not happen, especially with a fit and active astronaut. Also, the rover vehicle used in later landings was 10’ long, 7.5’ wide and 4’high with 32” diameter wheels. The Earth weight was 460 pounds and under one sixth gravity, that would only be 75 pounds, but the astronauts had great difficulty unloading it from the lunar module. Engineers on Earth had already determined that to operate under one sixth gravity, the rover would have to be 20’ long and have a 20’ tread. With a loaded earth weight of 1,600 pounds, it would need a turning radius of well over 80’ to avoid tipping over at 10 mph or more than 20’ at 5 mph and descending steep hills would not be possible without major problems. But, the astronauts did descend steep hills and they made very sharp turns at maximum speed.
One of the photographs brought back by the Apollo 12 trip, showed an astronaut carrying instruments hanging from a bar. The instruments had an Earth-weight of 190 pounds, supposedly 31 pounds on the Moon, but the pronounced bowing of the bar would not have been caused by just 30 pounds.
During the early Moon trips, the astronauts stated that when they left the atmosphere, the stars were not visible. This is understandable as the atmosphere scatters starlight, making stars appear larger and so become visible to the naked eye. Outside the atmosphere, there is no scattering and the stars are too small to be seen without a telescope. On the Apollo 11 trip, shortly before reaching the Moon, Collins stated “Now we’re able to see starts again and recognise constellations for the first time on the trip. The sky’s full of stars ... it looks like it’s night side on Earth”. This demonstrates that the Moon has a significant atmosphere caused by much higher gravity than one sixth that of Earth, although the refraction of light through that atmosphere is less than the refraction caused by Earth’s atmosphere.
Mr Cater points out that NASA is well aware of the real nature of gravity and had electrogravitic drives long before the 1969 Moon shot. Not only that, but due to the fact that the Moon is bigger than currently believed, further away and possessing a higher surface gravity, that rocket power used during the flight was supplemented by an electrogravitic drive. Any honest person who has studied the evidence is well aware that there are many craft with electrogravitic drives and most of these seen in the last sixty years, are man-made. (All governments are very keen to suppress this information as national boundaries could not be maintained if electrogravitic drive vehicles were available to the public).
2. Relativity, proposed by Albert Einstein, is not correct and Mr Cater spends quite some time demonstrating that relativity is wrong. Prior to Einstein, the Transverse Wave Theory of light was universally accepted. Waves cannot exist without a medium which vibrates in some manner to transmit them. Therefore, the “ether” which permeates all of the universe was accepted. The Michelson-Morley experiment was set up to test this. A ray of light was split into two parts which were made to traverse different paths of equal length. The motion of the Earth through the ether should then cause the recombined rays to show diffraction patterns. They didn’t. It did not occur to anyone that if light were retarded by passing through the ether, then bodies such as planets would be seriously retarded by their passage through it and would slow down and stop. This experiment also gave rise to the ridiculous idea that the speed of light is a constant, in spite of the well-known fact that the speed of light through water is only 75% the speed of light through space. It was also proposed that the speed and direction of movement of an observer didn’t matter, That time slows down on a moving system, that a body will shorten in the direction of motion and that the mass of a body will increase the faster that body moves. These are ridiculous suggestions. The famous equation E = mC2 was actually derived from the Lorentz equations in 1903, two years before Einstein got into the act.
Physicists argue that particle accelerators demonstrate the increase of mass with speed. This is not the case and the experiments actually demonstrate a very important principle which provides a better understanding of many physical phenomena. It is an established fact that a magnetic field develops around a charged body when it is given a velocity. Where did the magnetic field come from? In the particle accelerator, as the particles accelerated, magnetic fields developed around them. As the total energy of the system remains constant, the magnetic field must have developed at the expense of the electrostatic field - the transformation of one kind of energy into another kind. This conversion from repelling electrostatic charges to magnetic fields causes the particles to clump together, giving the false impression of an increase in mass. Further, as the electrostatic component drops to almost zero, the accelerating force diminishes to near zero also, giving the false impression that a material body can’t travel faster than the speed of light. The reality is that bodies can travel many times the speed of light.
According to General Relativity, a gravitational field will tend to slow the passage of time and the stronger the gravitational field, the more marked the effect. It was found that Caesium clocks run faster at high elevations than they do at ground level. This has been taken as a proof of the validity of Einstein’s ideas. The concentration of soft particles is higher near the ground than at high elevations and that makes clocks run faster at high elevations. As to the speed of light not depending on the velocity of it’s source, the Sagnac experiment of 1913 provides direct proof that the observed velocity of light is dependent on the velocity of it’s source, disproving Relativity. Mr Cater provides extensive demonstrations (as do other people) that Einstein’s deductions are not correct.
3. It is clear that gravity is responsible for the tides, but the standard explanation is wholly inadequate, being based on the assumption that gravitational effects have unlimited penetration. In other words, the only attenuation when passing through matter is due to the inverse square law, which actually would be a violation of the law of conservation of energy.
It is well known that a body cannot be given an acceleration relative to another body if both bodies experience the same acceleration. It follows then that since large bodies of water are accelerated relative to the Earth to cause tides, the water is being experiencing a different acceleration than the Earth as a whole, otherwise, there would be no tidal movement of water across the surface of the Earth. Assuming that gravity has unlimited penetration causes problems when accounting for tidal movements. Since the distances between the Sun and the Earth and the Moon and the Earth are large in comparison to the diameter of the Earth, all parts of the Earth will experience nearly the same gravitational attraction from these external bodies if gravity has unlimited penetration. High tides tend to occur when the Moon is at it’s zenith, both directly underneath the Moon and simultaneously, on the opposite side of the Earth.
The Earth’s orbit is inclined to the Equator by 28 degrees and so the Moon is never further North or South than 28 degrees. According to Newton’s theory, the highest tides should occur near the Equator but the reality is that the highest tides are experienced much further away from the Equator, both North and South of it. Mr Cater provides an in-depth discussion of these effects, demonstrating that Newton’s concept of gravity is wrong.
4. It is generally accepted that energy, in any form, flows from a higher potential to a lower one. The law of redistribution of energy states that when radiant electromagnetic energy interacts with matter, the resulting radiation as a whole, is of a lower frequency than the original light. This is why temperatures at lower elevations are generally higher than those at higher elevations, as sunlight passing through air converts to lower frequencies including infrared which activates the thermal motion of atoms and molecules, thus producing heat. Any dynamic unit is less active as a whole, than the individual parts comprising it. The higher ethers consist of the smaller, more active particles while the lower ethers are composed of the large, more complex and consequently less active particles. Both ethers occupy the same 3-dimensional space (which is the only space that there is).
When light of a given frequency range is produced, only the ethers associated with this light are directly activated. Light photons are composed of combinations of ether particles. Photons combine to form the penetrating particles which accompany this light. Particles composed of light in the lower frequency ranges are referred to as “soft” particles while those associated with gamma rays and above are referred to as “hard” particles.
Soft particles are more penetrating than the photons from which they are made, because, unlike the larger soft particles, photons have a relatively great surface area in proportion to their mass. Soft particles, and particularly soft electrons, play a vital role in all life processes and in other chemical reactions. The energy or field intensity of and around the higher ether particles is greater than that of the lower ethers. The diameter of a particle is inversely proportional to the average frequency of it’s constituent light.
5. The energies radiated from the Sun are continuously transformed into ever lower frequencies as they penetrate into the Earth. In this manner, nearly all of the original ultraviolet is transformed into lower frequency radiation by the time it penetrates the shell of the Earth. It is the transformation of some of the radiation from the Sun into gravity-inducing radiation which holds the Earth and the other planets in orbit around the Sun and give the illusion that the Sun has about thirty times Earth gravity. It should be mentioned that soft particles penetrate solid matter more readily than hard particles which are, of course, an integral part of matter.
All matter continuously radiates soft particles of many different kinds due to the interactions of the fundamental particles. These radiated particles undergo a transformation effect, according to the transformation law, when passing through large concentrations of matter. When this occurs, some of the radiation is transformed into gravity-inducing radiation. This is the source of some of the surface gravity of both the Earth and the Moon. The greatest contributing factor to Earth and Moon gravity is the transformation of radiation resulting from the thermal agitation of atoms and molecules. The particles resulting from this activity are comprised of lower-frequency photons. Such radiation is more readily transformed into gravity-inducing radiation because it is closer to this frequency band to begin with. A significant portion of this radiation, originating miles below the surface, is converted into gravity-producing energies by the time it reaches the surface. Most of the gravity radiation of the Earth and the Moon is created in the topmost fifty miles of their crusts. Below that level, much of the energy from the Sun has been transformed into softer particles, and that material of the Earth and Moon is permeated with them.
These soft particles screen out gravity radiation more effectively than solid matter does. This is because the ethers with which they are associated, are closer in frequency to the gravity radiation band. This explains why Moon gravity is nearly equal to Earth gravity. At the same time, it is clear why the Cavendish Experiment for determining the so-called “gravitational constant” was misleading – there wasn’t enough material in the bodies used in the experiment to produce any radiation transformation. The gravitational effects produced by the bodies were due entirely to the thermal agitation of the molecules, without any transformation of radiation. The thermal agitation of molecules produces infrared and only an infinitesimal portion of this radiation is in the gravity-producing frequency range. This “gravity constant” plus the idea of unlimited gravity penetration, requires scientists to assume that the Earth has a tremendous mass and an iron core four thousand miles in diameter.
It is significant that some of the Cavendish Experiments indicated that gravity effects varied with the temperature. When the large sphere used ion the experiments was heated, the smaller sphere had a greater tendency to move towards the larger sphere. When the larger sphere was cooled, the smaller sphere receded. This was explained away as being caused by convection currents although they failed to explain how convection currents could produce such an effect. A detailed account of this can be found in the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in the section entitled “Gravity”. (If they felt that air currents were skewing the results, then the experiment should have been repeated inside a box which had the air removed).
As mentioned before, matter produces infrared radiations which are partially transformed into gravity radiations. In the case of mountain ranges, there is not enough matter to transform significant portions of such radiations into gravity radiations. Much of the radiation will escape from the tops and slopes of the mountains before they can be transformed, since their average heights are generally small compared to their horizontal dimensions. The gravity radiations produced deep in the interior of the mountains are partially dispersed by the overlying mass. This is the cause of the plum bob enigma which is a source of annoyance to conventional physicists because the plumb bob is not pulled towards the mountains to the extent demanded by Newtonian laws.
Another problem is that, in comparison to the Sun, the Earth radiates only an infinitesimal amount of radiation per unit of surface area but it is able to keep the Moon in it’s orbit around the Earth. Even allowing for infrared radiation passing from the Earth to the Moon and converting to additional gravitational radiation there, it still wouldn’t be enough to keep the Moon in orbit unless the Moon were hollow and had a shell not more than a hundred miles thick.
In 1978, scientists were shocked to discover that some of the asteroids have moons which orbit around them at respectable velocities. According to Newton, this is impossible as the gravity of an asteroid would be far too feeble to allow this. When a body is a few miles across, it is large enough for gravitational radiation to be produced. This effect increases rapidly as the size of the body increases as far more infrared is transformed than is screened out by the outer layers of the mass. The effect continues until the body is about 150 miles in diameter and beyond that point, the screening effect of the outer layers keeps pace with the rate of increase of the transformation of infrared into gravity radiation. This means that all planets have practically the same surface gravity.
6. Mr Cater explains how soft and hard particles and the limited penetration of gravity account for Erath upheavals, continental drift, earthquakes and volcanoes. He also remarks that if the Earth were a completely solid ball and the Newtonian version of gravity were correct, then the Earth would be completely rigid and no Earth changes would occur other than some minor erosion, and there would certainly be no mountains left by now.
7. One of the most fundamental physical laws involves the relationship between the electrostatic and magnetic fields. One transforms into the other and vice versa. Inertia is a third factor involved in the relationship between the electrostatic and magnetic fields. The kinetic energy of a moving charge is manifested in it’s magnetic field. The magnetic field increases at the expense of it’s electrostatic field (as dictated by the law of conservation of energy). The role of inertia and the conditions governing it’s magnitude are now apparent. The inertia of a body is dependent on it’s ability to generate a magnetic field when it is given a velocity. The greater the inertia, the greater this ability.
The magnitude of the inertia of a body is directly proportional to the energy of the magnetic field which the body develops for a given increase in velocity. It follows then that inertia is dependent on the total electrostatic charge of a body. This is also true for so-called “uncharged” matter. In the supposedly uncharged state, all atoms and molecules have a net positive charge. Therefore, even atoms and molecules develop a magnetic field when they are given a velocity.
In 1901, Max Planck found that he could only derive the correct distribution in frequency of the radiant energy in the cavity of a black body as a function of the temperature of that body, if he assumed that energy exists in discrete units. He came up with NHV where N is an integer, V is the frequency of the light involved and H is a universal constant (expressed in terms of energy multiplied by time, that is, erg-seconds). This is now known as Planck’s Constant and is 6.6 x 10-27 erg-seconds.
The kinetic energy of a light photon is inversely proportional to the frequency. The lower frequency light, consists of larger and more massive photons travelling at the same velocity as the higher frequency photons. On average, the number of photons in any given ray, and the number of accompanying soft electrons will be a constant, regardless of the frequency. This is in accordance with the conclusion that the average distance, or mean free path between ether particles of the same kind, is a constant, regardless of the ethers involved. The average number of photons comprising a soft electron will also be independent of the frequency. This means that the diameter of the surface area of a soft electron, will also be inversely proportional to the frequency. Soft electrons accompanying light, travel at a velocity which is less than that of light. The soft electrons pick up speed, by bombardments of faster moving photons.
From a superficial glance, it seems that the average velocity of soft electrons should be independent of the frequency of the light associated with them. This is not so. The soft electrons associated with the higher frequency, travel at a higher velocity, and herein lies the key to the photo-electric effect. Although the lower mass of the higher frequency soft electrons is offset by the lower kinetic energy of the bombarding higher frequency photons, the surface area is greater in proportion to mass. This means that in proportion to mass, the electrons associated with the higher frequency light will receive a greater bombardment of photons and so, a greater accelerating force. The ratio between surface area and volume, or mass, is inversely proportional to the ratio between the diameter of two given spheres. Since the other factors balance out, it follows that the resultant average kinetic energy of soft electrons in proportion to mass, is directly proportional to the frequency of the light with which they are associated. As soft electrons collide with a surface, the hard electrons which they contain, are released and they bombard the surface, producing the photo-electric effect. They will be travelling at the same velocity as the soft electrons which housed them, so their average kinetic energy will be proportional the frequency of light.
Quantum mechanics is considered the most monumental achievement of twentieth centaury physics. In view of the principles presented above, it is not surprising that mathematical juggling with Planck’s constant would account for many experimental results (in a quantative sense). Quantum mechanics experts have enjoyed considerable success in this respect, especially in the realm of atomic spectra, without knowing why. In reality, quantum mechanics does not even qualify as a theory or a concept. It is merely an attempt to give mathematical descriptions of certain phenomena with Planck’s constant and his valid assumption as a starting point. Modern “theoretical” physicists have absolutely no conception of why their mathematics agrees with certain experimental results. Yet, they have led themselves to believe that by giving mathematical descriptions of such phenomena, they have actually explained them.
It now becomes evident, why a mass can travel through space at a constant velocity, and encounter no decelerating force. The ether particles are so active that the closing forces at the back of the moving body, tend to equal the resistive forces encountered at the front. The rear portion creates a temporary void which is rapidly filled in by the surrounding ether particles, producing an effect very much like the Coander Effect. During the filling in process, the fundamental particles comprising the rear of the body are bombarded with ether particles travelling at a higher velocity than is normal. Also, the ether particles of which the mass is comprised are so relatively sparsely distributed throughout space, the situation is equivalent to a great mass travelling through a highly rarefied atmosphere.
8. During the creation of a photon, the ethers in the vicinity are suddenly compressed. Some of the ether particles are forced close enough together to adhere to each other. This aggregate is then propelled outwards with great force in a manner similar to a compressed spring being released. The photon reaches the speed of light after this accelerating force has been expended, which happens in a distance equal to the so-called wavelength. This process is repeated in the same region and another photon is produced which follows the first one, just one wavelength behind. A wide range of ethers are periodically affected during the production of ordinary light. This results in a countless variety of such particles being propagated in all directions with many different wavelengths. Since many photons are projected in all directions, many collisions will result, causing a significant portion to adhere to each other in aggregates.
The great majority of soft electrons are created during fluctuations in light velocity when passing through media of varying density, and even in it’s passage through outer space. Any slowing down, produces a backing up of photons and a consequent combining into relatively huge aggregates. In the beginning, these aggregates move much more slowly than the free photons. Consequently, some of the photons which were created at a later time, catch up and adhere to the aggregate. Their collisions with the aggregate particles causes the particles to speed up. This is the origin of the particles which always accompany light. Particles formed in this manner will vary greatly in size, stability and penetrating ability. It has been shown that soft particles will penetrate ordinary matter more readily than the hard particles. So, ether particles combine to form photons which in turn, combine to form light particles. This, light particles will disintegrate into photons.
Atoms are comprised of hard particles which are uniform in size and structure and it follows that they were produced by an entirely different process. When light enters a medium, it encounters a conglomerate of soft particles created by the activities of the fundamental particles of the atoms which comprise the medium. This causes the light to slow down and the particles of light to crowd together inside the medium. If a beam of light enters a medium at an angle, the portion entering first will travel a shorter distance than the rest of the beam during the same interval of time. The portion of the beam entering the medium later is pulled by magnetic attraction of the particles, towards the side which reached the surface first. This causes the beam of light to be bent or change direction, accounting for the refraction of light which has never before been adequately explained.
Mr Cater then goes on to resolve the famous wave-particle paradox, and the also points out that the famous Michelson-Morley Experiments actually disprove the Transverse Wave Theory of light.
9. It must be realised that nature’s laws are basically simple. To gain a deeper understanding of the nature of electrons, protons and electrostatic forces, it is necessary to look for an uncomplicated picture of the fundamental particles and the cause of their behaviour patterns. The collision laws involving the molecules of a gas can be applied to the ethers. Also, it can be deducted that electrostatic forces are the result of an imbalance of ether particles bombarding fundamental particles of matter.
It seems logical to assume that electrons and protons have a spherical shape as a sphere is the most stable and efficient geometrical form. It also has the smallest surface area for any given volume. However, such an assumption leads to insurmountable difficulties. Electrons and protons have a preferred direction of spin in relation to their direction of motion. The electron follows the left hand rule, while the proton spins according to the right hand rule. With a perfect spherical shape they could not have any preferred direction of spin. However, the preferred directions of spin can be readily accounted for if the particles are pear-shaped or egg-shaped and they are hollow.
When ether particles have a preferred direction of motion away from the electrons due to reflections, a pulsating electric field results. The excessive flow away from the electron tends to reduce the bombardment of incoming ether particles. A temporary low ether pressure around the particle is a result of this and in turn, this reduced pressure reduces the reflections and that causes the ethers to move in again and a sudden increase in ether bombardment results. This is something akin to the Coander Effect. The cycle is then repeated. It is to be expected that an electrostatic field is no exception and in this respect, “electrostatic” is a misnomer. The fluctuations are at such a high frequency that experimental results will see the (average) force as being a constant.
The behaviour of beams of electrons and protons in strong magnetic and electric fields indicates that protons have about 1836 times the inertial mass of electrons. Inertia is directly proportional to charge, indicating that the total charge of a proton is 1836 times as great as that of an electron. The idea that the hydrogen atom consists of one electron and one proton has never been questioned. To quote from a science magazine: “When protons crash into each other, they release showers of electrons, which suggests that protons are made up of particles more basic than themselves”.
On the basis of relative charge effects alone, it follows that a hydrogen atom, instead of having only one electron orbiting a proton, that there are at least 1836 orbiting electrons. However, since the proton has relatively little movement in comparison to the electron, a far greater percentage of the electrostatic field of the electron has been transformed. This means that in order for the hydrogen atom to have close to a neutral charge, there must be thousands of electrons in one hydrogen atom. This seems to create a paradox as the amount of electricity required to liberate a given amount of hydrogen in electrolysis indicates that only one electron is necessary for every atom of hydrogen.
Scientists have never comprehended the source of the electricity that powers electrical equipment. There are unlimited quantities all around us, permeating all of known space. This hard electricity is camouflaged by softer particles which are also distributed throughout space. The flow of this limitless source of electrons can easily be set into motion. The electricity employed in electrolysis merely triggers the flow of far greater quantities. Also, when a hydrogen atom is ionised, it only needs to lose a very small percentage of it’s electrons instead of being reduced to only a proton.
Matter is rendered visible by the steady formation of soft particles generated by the activities of the fundamental particles. It is then apparent that frozen hydrogen would be completely invisible if electrostatic fields were not cyclic and the hydrogen atom had only one electron. Cyclic electrostatic fields are largely responsible for the complex spectral pattern of all of the elements. The cyclic pattern of hard-particle interactions is complex. This complexity increases rapidly as the number of fundamental particles in the atom increases.
Since electrons move at much higher velocities in the atom than protons do, they cover much more territory and so a higher percentage of their electrostatic charge is transformed into magnetic energy. This means that the positive charge in the atom will overbalance the negative charge and so, give the atom an overall positive charge. This explains why electricity tends to move towards ground and the Earth must posses a positive charge.
The electrostatic field effects near the atom in close proximity to the electrons, will be negative. Moving outwards, this negative effect diminishes quickly and a zone of positive field effect exists. The position and intensity of these zones, determines in part, the chemical and physical properties of the atom. There are regions where the atoms will attract each other and regions where they will repel each other. Ether particles have a similar structure and follow the same pattern.
The velocity of orbiting electrons in atoms is not uniform. There are periodic fluctuations resulting from mutual interferences within the atom itself and from adjacent atoms, in addition to the pulsating electrostatic fields. It must be noted that the properties of the atom are not observed individually, but as a collective group. The region of activity for the protons is relatively small and a significant number of electrons are trapped here. This region is the origin of neutrons, which are actually collapsed hydrogen atoms. It is interesting to note that when hydrogen is subjected to ultra high pressures, it behaves like a high concentration of neutrons and passes through the container which is being pressurised as though it didn’t exist.
A more detailed discussion of the structure of the neutron is in order. The new concept of thousands of electrons comprising the hydrogen atom (to say nothing of the other atoms), provides, for the first time, a means of accounting for the properties of the neutron.
When a cloud of electrons orbiting the proton is forced into close proximity with the zone of repulsion, as described earlier, their motions become restricted. As a result, there is a lowering of the average velocity with a consequent increase in their negative electrostatic charge. This provides a stronger bond between the proton and the electrons. The orbital speed cannot be increased because of the zone of repulsion surrounding the proton, and the crowding of the electrons. The higher overall negative charge of the electrons almost completely cancels out the positive charge of the proton. The result is a particle which is electrically neutral, as far as most experiments can determine.
The electron cloud comprising the hydrogen atom is further removed from the proton and the individual electrons are not restricted in their orbital motions. The average velocity is much higher and consequently, the hydrogen atom has a high positive charge. The atoms of the gaseous elements, such as hydrogen and oxygen, are highly magnetic. Therefore, two atoms combine in much the same way as two bar magnets, to form a molecule consisting of two atoms. This is the reason why the molecules of nearly all the gaseous elements consist of two atoms. The combination has a still higher overall positive charge than a single atom has. As a result of this, the molecules have a strong mutual repulsion which keeps them widely separated at normal temperatures and pressures. Thus, they remain a gas even at extremely low temperatures.
The presence of electrons in the “nucleus”, nullifying repulsive forces, along with the magnetic fields resulting from the motions of neutrons, is the major source of the so-called “mysterious force holding the nucleus together”. In reality, the pinch effect of magnetic fields is the prime force which holds the atom together. Orthodox physicists have complicated the picture by claiming that many different forces exist: magnetic, electrostatic, gravitational, nuclear, and others to which they have ascribed odd names. In reality, only electrostatic and magnetic forces exist and there are two, and only two, basic particles – electrons and protons. Since the electrostatic field effects around the electron and proton are cyclic, the magnetic fields which they generate will also have a cyclic intensity.
10. Although neither spin when at rest, both the electron and the proton start to spin in a definite direction when they are given a velocity. This is contrary to the assertions of modern theorists who talk about particle spin with reckless abandon. The electron always follows the left-hand rule, while the proton follows the right-hand rule.
When placed in an electrostatic field, they move in such a manner that the large end is facing in the direction of their motion, regardless of their original orientation. The reason for this is not difficult to discern. If they are hollow and the shell is of a certain thickness in proportion to it’s diameter, then the larger end will have more surface area in proportion to it’s mass than the smaller end will have. The thickness of the shell at the smaller end will be much greater in proportion to it’s diameter. This means that ether bombardment at the larger end will tend to give it a greater acceleration than that imparted to the smaller end and as a result, the larger end will be forced ahead in the direction of motion.
The picture is still incomplete. In order for the particle to have a preferred direction of spin, the frontal surface must be grooved in the manner of a right-hand or left-hand screw. Such a shape is consistent with recent experiments at the Argonne National Laboratory, which studied the shattering of proton beams aimed at target protons. The results indicated that protons are not spherical. A detailed account of such experiments can be found in the article “The Argonne Experiments and The End of Quarkery” by Eric Lerner which appeared in the Oct-Nov 1997 issue of Fusion Magazine. In the article he showed that some of the basic assumptions of quantum mechanics are contradictory, and he dispensed with the popular theory in particle physics which assumed an ever-growing family of hypothetical particles called “quarks”.
It has been noted that a magnetic field surrounds a moving charge. The magnetic lines are in the form of circles. An electron or proton tends to carry ether particles around with it in a circular motion as it moves through the ethers. This is due to the mutual repulsion between the ether particles and the ether particles comprising the particle. The reactive forces cause the particle to spin and they produce a vortex motion in the ether itself. The greater the velocity of the particle, the faster it spins and the more ether particles are caused to flow around it in the direction of the spin. It is this flow of ether particles around a moving charge which produces the magnetic field effects observed. A three-dimensional view of this magnetic field shows that it resembles a corkscrew spiral or vortex.
The ether particles which would normally cause repulsion between two adjacent particles at rest, spin when they both move and the electrostatic repulsion drops off and is replaced by a magnetic field which draws the two particles together. This effect is also seen in two adjacent wires carrying a heavy current flowing in the same direction. The wires are drawn towards each other.
If two unlike charges move along together, they spin in opposite directions, generating magnetic fields of opposing polarity which tends to push the particles apart.
An electron or proton moving in a magnetic field has two forces acting on it. One force tends to push it down the magnetic lines of force because of excessive ether particle bombardments in one direction of flow. The other force is perpendicular to the lines of force. If the velocity of the particle is high, then the latter force is by far the more significant. This force is a result of Bernoulli’s principle. Magnetic fields tend to capture large quantities of soft electrons.
11. The conventional theory of geomagnetism lacks merit. According to it, the major portion of geomagnetism is the result of electric currents flowing in a molten iron core 2,000 miles beneath the surface of the Earth. Even if such a core did exist, the conclusion would still be false. Scientists are somewhat vague as to how a magnetic field could extend 2,000 miles beyond an electric current considering that it takes a very powerful current to produce even weak magnetic effects a short distance from the current flow. The electrical resistance of iron at the alleged temperatures of the core would be staggering, which raises the question of how the necessary massive potential difference is produced to drive a large current in the core in the first place.
A great wealth of evidence supports the conclusion that geomagnetism is produced by the Earth’s rotation. The intensity of the field is dependent on the concentration of negative charges in the atmosphere and the crust and on the rotational velocity. Since the concentration of charges in the atmosphere fluctuates in a 24-hour cycle, the magnetic field can be expected to fluctuate accordingly. This is an established fact.
Supposedly uncharged atoms and molecules are not electrically neutral, but possess a positive charge. It has always been assumed since the days of Newton, that inertia is directly proportional to mass. This has been shown to be incorrect as inertia is dependent on total charge and is therefore independent of mass. It follows that an atom has less inertia than any of the fundamental particles of which it is composed. The small overall charge of an atom is the result of the equalising of positive and negative charges. It’s slight ability to generate a magnetic field for a unit increase of velocity is due to electrons following the left-hand rule while protons follow the right-hand rule. The inertia of an atom is limited because the magnetic fields of the electrons and protons from which it is constructed, cancel each other out to a major degree. Stripping electrons from an atom will give it a strong positive charge and much greater inertia even though it now has less mass. Adding electrons to it can also raise it’s inertia if the extra electrons cause it to end up with a greater overall charge than it had before. The Nobel Prize winner Gabriel Lippman confirmed this when he found that bodies in a charged state have greater resistance to acceleration than they have in their uncharged state.
Since matter behaves like a positive charge, it follows that gravity radiation will accelerate positive charges in a direction opposite to that of the direction of its propagation. A gravitational field repels negative charges. When the hair on a person’s head is given a strong negative charge, it stands straight up due to the negative charges on the hairs carrying the hairs with them as the charges are pushed upwards by gravity.
The bulk of the radiations and soft particles of matter cover only a relatively narrow part of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are produced by the interactions of the fundamental particles of the atom in addition to the interactions of the atoms themselves. Incidentally, it is the soft particles comprised of photons close to, and in, the visible range which permeate matter that make matter visible. If only the hard particles were present, solid matter would be invisible, although completely tangible.
The leading part of the gravity radiation front produces negative charge effects, while the trailing portion which has passed a given body must have substantially reduced negative charge effects. The spin of the particles in gravitational radiation have a gyroscopic effect which keeps the particles orientated in the same position and the particles have little tendency to scatter.
The faster moving photons overtake the soft particles and tend to adhere to them in irregular patterns, creating a perforated and extremely rough surface on this part of the particle, not unlike that of a positive charge. This has a tendency to cancel out much of the negative field effects on this part of the particle. The bombardments accelerate the particles to such an extent that no more photons can adhere to them. Therefore, the rear part maintains a positive charge, or at least, a much reduced negative charge.
Another important factor which contributes to a reduced negative charge at the rear is that there is a far greater photon concentration in this region than exists at the frontal portion. This is a result of a backup of photons caused by the lower velocity of the soft particles accompanying the radiation. This photon concentration tends to divert the normal ether bombardments (which produce the electrostatic effects) from their usual paths. Since gravity radiations produce forces, it follows that there are interactions which eventually disperse the radiation, accounting for the limited penetration of gravity radiation. Gravity is an electrostatic effect, not some space warp or mysterious force with imponderable properties. If matter is impregnated with sufficient quantities of negative charges, especially soft electrons, it will become weightless and even levitate.
Some individuals have the ability to do the reverse of levitation, possibly by expelling large quantities of negative charge from their bodies. A dwarf who had a normal body weight of 123 pounds demonstrated under strict anti-fraud conditions that he could increase his weight to 900 pounds.
The physics of levitation was demonstrated in part when missiles were found to have lost most of their original weight after travelling through the Van Allen Radiation Belt and returning to Earth. The weight loss continued for some time and containers in which pieces of the missile were placed, also lost weight. The radiation belt contains high concentrations of negative charges of all kinds, from hard electrons to the very soft ones. The missile became impregnated with negative charges as it passed through this region, absorbing an abnormal quantity. The more penetrating softer particles opened the door for the harder particles to enter. The loss of weight of the container would have been caused by the missile gradually losing some of it’s excess negative charges and those charges being absorbed into the container.
12. Faster than light travel is possible because the accelerating gravity beam travels with the mass being accelerated. At ultra-high velocities, or where most of the electrostatic potential of matter has been transformed, cohesive forces will tend to break down and the material will cease to be a cohesive solid. However, spaceships can travel many times the speed of light provided that the ship and the occupants are impregnated with the right combination of negative charges which would prevent any extensive transformation of the electrostatic mass into magnetic energy. At ultra-high velocities, the closing forces on the rear of the craft no longer compensate for the forward resistance, so it requires a steady application of accelerating forces to maintain velocities many times that of light.
The evidence concerning spaceship propulsion demonstrates that the famous Einsteinian equation E = mC2 falls far short of representing the energy potential of matter. From the kinetic energy equation E = 0.5mV2 it follows that a body travelling at only 1.5 times the speed of light (which isn’t even a cruising speed for most spaceships) has a kinetic energy which exceeds the value of Einstein’s celebrated equation. At this velocity, only a miniscule part of the energy potential of the mass has been released. The meaninglessness of the famous equation is also evident, because inertia is dependent only on net charge and not necessarily on mass or quantity of material.
13. Another item which demonstrates the validity of the information presented here is the fact that determinations of the gravity “constant” “g” is always significantly higher when measured in mines. This is to be expected as the soft electron concentration is much higher below the surface than it is above the surface. Another fact which disturbs physicists (and consequently given little publicity) is that objects at the bottom of mine shafts weight significantly less than they should according to Newton’s concept of gravity.
Another enigma which is damaging to the academic viewpoint is that experiments indicate that gravity doesn’t impart the same acceleration to all substances. To try to deal with this fact, they have to introduce a mysterious fifth force which is supposed to be an extremely feeble repulsive force with a limited range. It is supposed to be more prevalent in some substances than in others. The concepts already explained here show that this is to be expected. Different atoms and molecules have different total positive charge effects in proportion to the number of fundamental particles from which they are made. Consequently, they will not be given the same gravitational acceleration even if the mass is identical.
14. We now come to questions such as; How does the law of redistribution of energy work? What are the real principles behind colour perception? Why is the velocity of light independent of it’s frequency? Why is this velocity equal to the ratio between an electromagnetic and electrostatic unit of charge? The answers to these questions have never been given before.
When materials are subjected to high temperatures, great fluctuations occur in the velocity of electrons in their orbits. This in turn, creates interactions and interference effects between electrons moving in opposite directions inside atoms and between electrons in adjacent atoms. These interactions generate changes in the electrostatic field effects of the electrons, which will cause regular and distinct changes in their so-called orbits. This is because the charge on the electron varies with it’s velocity. Abrupt changes in the velocity of a particle disrupt the ethers which results in the formation of photons.
The larger the atoms, the more complex the interactions, and consequently, the more intricate the spectral pattern. The photons comprising the electrons, determine the range of the ethers which will be disrupted. These ethers are intimately connected with the electrostatic field intensity of the electrons. Thus it follows from this new definition of Planck’s constant, just why this definition must be taken into consideration in all of the calculations concerning the frequency of light produced in interactions.
The electrostatic field effects around an electron depend on the range and level of the ethers deflecting off the sides of the particles. This range is not necessarily the same as the range of ethers affected by sudden changes in the velocity of the electrons, but there is a direct correlation between the two. Planck’s constant has a role throughout the procedure as all ether particles have the same kinetic energy.
The law of redistribution of energy states that when light interacts with matter, new light with a lower average frequency than the original is produced. One of the most simple demonstrations of this is shining a blue or violet light through a large number of filters of any type. The emerging light is always red. All of the colours which we normally see are combinations of different frequencies of photons. A wide frequency range of soft particles and photons will tend to be grouped together. This means that bands of light in the blue, indigo and violet ranges will contain other colours down to the reds, although the reds will make up only a very small percentage. The human eye sees only the dominant colour, and prisms cannot separate them. The colour experiments of Edwin Land proved this to be the case.
In the May 1959 issue of Scientific American, Land showed that two black and white transparencies produced from black and white film, were exposed to filtered light from two different (reasonably spaced apart) parts of the spectrum, the resulting superimposed images were in full colour. This shows that it requires subtle combinations of frequencies for the eye to perceive colour if the light isn’t in a narrow frequency band. Otherwise, the eye will see things in various shades of black and white, which contain all the colours but in the wrong combinations to be seen as colours. This is what occurs for people who are subject to ‘colour blindness’.
Under certain conditions, light reflected from a mirror can have greater intensity than the incoming light. The light has to be of high intensity. When the particles of the incoming light collide with the mirror, those that are reflected are instantly brought to a halt. This produces a tremendous disturbance of the ethers which results in the creation of new photons which are added to the photons which are reflected. In addition, many of the photons reflected and created, combine to form soft electrons, and so the reflected light has a higher percentage of soft electrons than the incoming light beam.
It follows that repeated reflections of a light source such as the Sun, would result in a highly lethal laser-like beam. This has been demonstrated on numerous occasions. Perhaps the most notable demonstration occurred near White Sands, New Mexico in the early 1950s. It was witnessed by an acquaintance of a personal friend of Mr Cater’s, and it was something which he wasn’t supposed to have seen. About thirty-five four foot diameter mirrors were arranged so that the resulting beam was directed at the rock wall of a mountain. It immediately created a neat hole through 200 feet of solid rock.
An associate of Mr Cater’s found that by putting a strong negative charge on the mirrors that their reflective power is considerably increased. He charged a series of metallic mirrors to 20,000 volts and found that after 10 repeated reflections from the Sun, the resulting beam was very lethal. This shows that it is the negative charges deposited on a mirror surface which enables it to reflect most of the light that falls on it. Incoming light immediately deposits negative charges on the surface and those charges repel the rest of the light. The more intense the incoming light, the higher the concentration of negative charges placed on the surface. This accounts for the fact that highly lethal beams reflecting from the surface do not destroy the mirror. The mirrors must be metallic and preferably concave. Glass mirrors do not work as much of the incoming light is lost before it reaches the reflecting surface and much of the shock effect of the light reflection is lost due to the glass slowing down the incoming beam. The incoming light must strike the mirror in as nearly a perpendicular direction as is possible. If soft electrons associated with colours known to be highly beneficial could be concentrated using this method to produce rapid healing
15. The question arises: Why is the velocity of light independent of it’s frequency? This is implicit in Maxwell’s equations but it still isn’t explained. When the ethers are disturbed to produce a photon, a fraction of them are compressed and a great number are forced close enough together to adhere to one another. The higher the ethers affected, the more rapidly and suddenly this displacement has to occur in order for a photon to be produced, otherwise, the ether particles will escape this compression since they are very active. This momentary compression quickly returns to normal, rather like a compressed spring being released. This rebound hurls the aggregate photon forward at the speed of light. The distance of this rebound is equal to the so-called wavelength, or distance over which the photon is accelerated to the speed of light.
This is exactly what happens when lower ethers are disturbed to form lower frequency photons, except that the rebound takes place over a greater distance with a lower average acceleration of the photon. Since the warped pattern is identical in both cases, both photons reach the same velocity, which is independent of the actual wavelength produced. As both photons receive the same thrust, it can be seen that lower frequency photons must have a greater mass, that is, the frequency of light is inversely proportional to the mass of the protons which form that light.
The behaviour of electrons and protons in a particle accelerator shows that at the speed of light, all of their electrostatic potential has been transformed into magnetic energy. This shows that the velocity of light relative to it’s source is the ratio of it’s Electromagnetic Unit of charge (“EMU”) and it’s Electrostatic Unit of charge (“ESU”). The ratio EMU / ESU is equal to the speed of light “C”. Calculating from these details, shows that the total pressure exerted on a single electron by the surrounding ethers is 14.4 dynes which represents a pressure beyond normal comprehension when the minute size of an electron is considered.
16. We now need to consider the role of soft electrons in promoting chemical changes and maintaining life. It has been repeatedly confirmed that magnetic fields have considerable healing properties and will stimulate plant growth. What has not been realised is that it is not the magnetic fields themselves which are responsible for this effect, but it is the soft electrons which they capture and concentrate. One pole of a magnet has beneficial effects for certain ailments, while the opposite pole is not as effective.
One of the most significant properties of soft electrons is their ability to promote chemical changes. A change in a molecule is not likely to take place without lessening the chemical bond or attraction among it’s constituent atoms. Soft particles interpenetrating the molecule will bring about this condition by carrying harder electrons in with them, which in turn weakens this bonding by offsetting the positive charge effects of the nucleus. Soft particles tend to camouflage a variety of harder particles. This is a vitally important property because in this manner, other atoms which are going to take part in the chemical change, also have their zonal effects temporarily altered so that they can come into more intimate contact during the reaction. The soft particles tend to act as catalysts for the reacting particles and the soft particles tend to get disintegrated in the process, releasing additional energy which expedites the reaction and allows the normally powerful electrostatic field effects within the atom to return to their original state. The release of the hard electrons contained within the soft particles which disintegrate is the source of much of the heat produced during chemical reactions.
17. The properties of water: water is a universal catalyst because of it’s unique ability to collect and concentrate an enormous quantity of soft electrons of all kinds. This is the reason why water has the highest specific heat of any know substance. The large amount of energy contained in water in the form of soft particles, has been demonstrated by experimenters on many occasions. For example, a number of reports show internal combustion engines running with water as the fuel. No reasonable explanation for this has been given as it appears to be contrary to all the rules of chemistry. However, the disintegration of the more unstable soft particles contained in the water when subjected to compression and ignition inside the engine, accounts for this seeming impossibility.
Water is a unique substance being comprised of two of the most chemically active elements, both of which are gaseous elements. The fact that three oxygen atoms can combine to form ozone, indicates that the oxygen atom is extremely magnetic, indicating that a higher percentage of it’s orbital electrons are moving in approximately the same plane. This leaves fewer orbital electrons tending to offset the positive charge of the nucleus and other portions of the atom. Consequently, two side of the oxygen atom possess an inordinately strong overall positive charge. When hydrogen atoms combine with an oxygen atom, the electro9ns on the side of the hydrogen atoms adjacent to the oxygen atom are brushed aside. This is on the segment of the oxygen atom where most of the electrons of the oxygen atom are orbiting. The normal flow of electrons around the proton of the hydrogen atom is diverted to become a flow which encircles the oxygen atom and the outer periphery of the hydrogen atoms. This results in a powerful magnetic and electrostatic bond between the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom. The electron flow around the hydrogen atoms is extremely rapid, resulting in a very high overall positive charge on the hydrogen atoms. As there is a very strong mutual repulsion between the hydrogen atoms, they will line up on opposite side of the oxygen atom, giving water the structure H-O-H. This molecule has strong and extensive positive zones, so the attraction zone is a considerable distance from the molecules. This is why the specific gravity of water is low, despite the strong positive charge of the molecules.
The great affinity of water for soft electrons is now apparent. The large positive zones between molecules are havens for soft electrons, drawn there by the attenuated, but significant, attraction of the hard electrons captured by the soft electrons. Although soft electrons are large compared to hard electrons, they are still very small compared to an atom. Therefore, the spaces between water molecules can harbour large quantities of soft electrons, without them being bound to the water molecules.
Perhaps the most baffling feature of water is that it expands when it freezes. The high concentration of soft electrons greatly weakens the forces of attraction and repulsion between the molecules. As a result, the average kinetic energy of the molecules at the freezing point are still sufficiently large to allow the molecules to move in and out of the zones of attraction and repulsion, without being confined in the attraction zone. The cooling must continue until the soft electron concentration reaches the stage where the attractive forces become strong enough to confine the molecules to the attractive zone. When this occurs, the water becomes a solid. Since the attractive zone is an inordinate distance from the molecules, the average distance between molecules becomes greater than it was when the water was in a liquid state. At the freezing point, the molecular activity is low enough to permit soft electrons to enter or leave the substance without disintegrating. In order for the water to be transformed from a solid back into a liquid, the same quantity of soft electrons must be injected into it as were removed when it changed from a liquid to a solid.
The melting and freezing temperatures of water vary considerably due to the differing amounts of soft electrons contained in it. Another unusual feature is that in cold weather, hot water pipes have a greater tendency to freeze than cold water pipes do. This is because the heating of the water drove off many of the soft electrons normally contained in the water and due to the low temperature of the surroundings, these soft electrons were not replaced, and as a consequence, freezing to become a solid happens more easily.
One tends to think of colloids as ultra-small particles of solid matter. However, molecules of water can adhere to each other to form aggregates of water molecules, which are effectively, colloids as well. Colloids have strong electrical properties as indicated by the fact that they are not affected by gravity. The field zones around any such colloidal group will be much stronger than that around a single water molecule. Water with a high percentage of such colloidal groups can capture a very large number of soft electrons which are beneficial to health. Abnormal conditions in certain places can favour the formation of water colloids and that can account for the healing properties of water found in some places, such as Lourdes in France.
18. Hard particles can be captured by softer particles and this is deeply involved in a wide range of phenomena, from the transmission of heat and electricity, to the formation of clouds.
Ether particles have zones of attraction and repulsion. Since photons are composed of ether particles, they will in turn, possess zones of attraction and repulsion. In the case of ether particles, these zones will be correspondingly smaller in proportion to the diameter of photons. When protons combine to form electrons or protons, the same zones are present between these particles. However, the zones of attraction are minute when compared to the diameter of the electron or proton, and like particles, seldom if ever get close enough together at sufficiently low velocities for the attractive forces to become effective.
The situation is entirely different when two similar particles composed of photons but with widely differing frequencies, approach each other. Electrostatic attraction or repulsion is considerably lessened because each is associated with ethers which differ considerably from each other. When they are ion direct contact with each other, electrostatic repulsion tends to vanish, since there can be little or no bombardments on the sides facing each other. Since each particle associated with ethers is somewhat different, they will tend to interpenetrate. This means that they will be completely within the ether attraction zones of one another. As a result, the harder particle is captured by the softer one. In a similar manner, the captured harder particles will, in turn, capture still harder particles and this process continues until electrons normally associated with electricity are confined. This combination of particles tends to nullify the electrostatic forces which are normally produced by the confined particles, camouflaging the captured harder particles so that their presence is not readily apparent.
The ether particles normally bombarding the hard electrons and protons which produce electrostatic field effects, tend to be diverted from their normal paths by the presence of softer particles or media between the repelling like charges and/or the attracting unlike charges. These interpenetrating softer particles produce an ultra-high concentration of ether particles around the hard particles. The motion of these ether particles is greatly restricted. This offers a barrier to the higher ether particles which normally bombard the hard particles. This has a tendency to slow them down, and any which do collide with the hard particles, do so with considerably less impact than normal, therefore they tend to become electrically neutral and their motion slows to nearly a halt.
Soft particles permeate matter as well as the spaces between matter, yet they do not to any great extent, neutralise the electrostatic field effects of the fundamental particles, because they are more concentrated and their rapid motion tends to prevent capture. However, additional concentrations of soft particles of the right kind, injected into matter, can render the elementary particles within the atom, electrically neutral and the matter becomes what is known as “dematerialised”. This conglomeration of soft and hard particles renders the soft particles electrically neutral.
It should be noted that only hard particles or the fundamental particles of the atom, are hollow. All other particles, including photons, do not have this tendency because of the nature of their formation. If the softer particles were hollow, they would be unable to capture harder particles. Hard particles entering a hollow, soft particle, would maintain their charges and force a mutual repulsion. Therefore, they would escape immediately. Photons, if hollow, would tend to be less stable, and the probability of forming other particles would be lessened.
When a soft particle disintegrates, a chain reaction occurs. The disintegration releases the confined, harder particles. The energy released during the disintegration is generally sufficient to disintegrate the weaker hard particles which it originally captured. This, in turn, results in the disintegration of still harder particles, until the very hard and stable electrons of electricity are released. Highly interesting experiments performed in Poland by two scientists; Howsky and Groot, demonstrated the ability of soft electrons to house and camouflage harder electrons, and to release them under certain conditions. These experiments were also a great confirmation of other principles already mentioned here, especially those involved with levitation.
A small quartz crystal was attached to an oscillator which generated radio frequencies of several kilowatts. This caused the crystal to lose it’s transparency and increase it’s volume 800%. The crystal then levitated and carried the oscillator, as well as a 55 pound weight, to a height of two metres above the floor. An account of this was given in an issue of Science and Invention magazine and it included a photograph of the levitation.
19. The energies concentrated inside a pyramid have been shown to be extremely beneficial to humans. Soft particle bombardments from outer space and especially from the Sun, concentrate inside the pyramid. Some, passing through the surface of the pyramid are slowed down to such an extent that the Earth’s gravitational field, repelling the negative charges, tends to keep them inside until collisions with other particles drives them out.
Most of the particles collected by the pyramid, concentrate along the edges as would be expected, since electricity on any charged body tends to do much the same thing, with concentrations at points and along edges. In fact, pyramid frames have been found to be nearly as effective as the closed pyramid, if, and only if, there is a continuity in the framework and no breaks in any of the joining parts.
The soft electrons collected on a pyramid frame or closed pyramid, soon reach saturation point and continued bombardment causes the excess to drop down inside the pyramid. This, coupled with the gravity-repelling forces, causes a high concentration inside the pyramid. The proportions of the pyramid are apparently a factor in it’s performance. If the sides are too steep, many of the soft electrons will move along the edges into the ground outside instead of being forced inside the pyramid. If the sides are not steep enough, not many particles will be collected as they strike the material at nearly a right angle which causes only a small reduction in velocity. If they strike at a sharper angle, there is a greater tendency for them to be retained by the material.
If two sides of the base are aligned with magnetic North, it is allegedly more effective. Pyramids can be rendered more potent by lining the interiors of a non-metallic enclosed pyramid, with metal foil such as aluminium or copper. The foil allows a greater quantity of soft electrons to accumulate around the non-metallic outer portion because the soft particles do not pass through the metallic substance as easily, causing a back-up of soft particles. During the process, the foil absorbs large quantities of soft particles before many of them can enter the pyramid. pyramids also radiate soft electrons upwards from the peak.
Many of the soft particles which are stopped briefly on the outside of the pyramid, are repelled upwards by the Earth’s gravitational field, and as well, by soft electrons attached to the pyramid. This produces a funnelling effect which ejects soft electrons from the apex of the pyramid. The Earth’s gravity accelerates soft particles at a far greater rate than it does ordinary matter as soft particles are associated with ethers which are much closer to those of the gravity-inducing particles than is the case for ordinary matter. After the pyramid becomes saturated, a greater quantity of soft particles than ever, will concentrate inside. The foil will continue to radiate a high concentration of soft particles during the night when the number of particles bombarding the pyramid is considerably reduced.
It is found that pyramids work better during the summer than at any other time of the year. They are also more effective in the lower latitudes because most of the energy concentrated by the pyramid comes from the Sun. There are conflicting opinions as to the effectiveness of pyramids because of this as there is little understanding of the principles involved. For example, those who experiment with pyramids in Canada may claim that they don’t work while those in Southern California will contradict them. A pyramid does not increase the flow of soft particles through the area covered by the pyramid as the same concentration flows outside the area. What a pyramid does, is impede the general flow of soft particles and produce a back-up of particles inside and below the pyramid, and consequently, a higher concentration of soft electrons in these regions. The material used in a pyramid is of great importance. This was demonstrated when a wealthy man in the Midwest built a pyramid-shaped house five stories high, which was then covered with gold-plated iron. The phenomena produced were completely unprecedented. For example, ground water was forced to the surface and flooded the first floor. This was because the soft particle concentration inside and below the pyramid was so great that ground water was impregnated with such an abnormal concentration of negative charges that it was repelled upwards by the Earth’s gravity.
Gold atoms have extremely high positive electrostatic field effects, more so than any other atom. This is why gold is the most malleable of all substances. This means that soft electrons will have a greater affinity for gold than for any other metal. As a result, abnormally high concentrations of soft electrons will concentrate around gold. This effect is greatly enhanced when gold is in contact with iron. These dissimilar metals produce an EMF which is turn, causes a flow of electricity or eddy currents resulting in the iron being magnetised. The magnetic field produced, captures additional soft electrons. A higher concentration of soft electrons is created by this combination then could be produced by a similar thickness of gold foil alone. It follows that by far the most effective material that could be used for pyramids is gold-plated sheet iron (galvanised iron should not be used).
With everything else being the same, the greater the size of a pyramid, the better the performance. The reason for this is that the thicker the layer of concentrated soft electrons through which the incoming soft particles must pass, the more they are slowed down when passing. This results in a greater back-up of soft electrons and an increase in the concentration inside the pyramid. Another reason is that a large pyramid has a greater ratio of volume to surface area. Soft electrons are continuously leaking away from the surface of the pyramid, the larger the pyramid, the lower the percentage of soft electrons which is lost. Consequently, very small pyramids are ineffective.
20. Viktor Schauberger of Austria was puzzled by the fact that large mountain trout could remain motionless for as long as they liked in the fastest flowing water in streams. When disturbed, they escape upstream with fantastic speed. He also noticed that water gets charged up through swirling vortex action as it flows around obstructions. As the water is highly agitated, it gives up large quantities of hard and soft electrons to the fish, causing the entire outer surface of the fish to get a high negative charge. This charge repels the outer electrons of the water molecules, totally eliminating drag and as a result, the water exerts almost zero force on the fish. This effect is even more enhanced as the fish moves upstream, much more so than if the fish went downstream. The negative charge also helps the fish jump as the Earth’s gravity boosts it upwards.
21. Brown’s gas, produced by one form of the electrolysis of water has properties which seem bewildering to most scientists. Using it, allows steel to be welded to a clay brick and the flame is not harmful to human flesh. The flame temperature depends entirely on what it is applied to. It can also reduce nuclear radiation by 96%. The properties of Brown’s gas confirm the information above. Water has a very large capacity to store soft electrons in addition to those already present in the structure of water. Brown did not separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. Instead, he added additional soft electrons to the water molecules. These additional charges greatly weakened the cohesive forces between the molecules, converting the water to an unstable gas. All of the properties of Brown’s Gas follow naturally from this. Under welding conditions, the vast concentrations of soft electrons supply the release of sufficient quantities of hard electrons to produce the needed heat. In addition, the soft electron concentrations enable iron atoms to partially interpenetrate brick molecules to produce a bond between brick and iron. Also, with the ultra-high concentration of soft electrons, the gas can readily neutralise the positive charges of nuclear radiation.
22. We need to examine the source of the Sun’s radiant energy. One thing that all suns seem to have in common is their great size. The astrophysicists speak of white dwarf suns of planetary size or less. It is clear that any claims made by astronomers or astrophysicists concerning celestial determinations, have about the same degree of merit as the other scientific claims which have already been mentioned. There is nothing to justify the existence of a white dwarf. For one thing, due to it’s allegedly small size and limited gravitational influence, it could only hold very small bodies of asteroid size in orbit around it and those would have to be only a short distance away from it. According to the fallacious theories of orthodox science, a white dwarf consists of atoms with practically all of their electrons stripped away, giving it enormous gravity. It will be shown that astrophysicists have no way of accurately determining the distance or the size of any celestial body.
The larger the body, the greater it’s mass or volume in proportion to it’s surface area. This means that as the size increases, it is less probable that the energies produced by the normal activity of the atoms in the body’s interior will escape from the surface without a resulting increase of temperature at the surface. The energy radiated from the surface will be in the form of photons and other particles of all types. Below a critical size, the surface area is sufficient to allow all of the radiant energy created in it’s interior, to escape without an increase in temperature. In fact, such a body will lose heat unless it receives sufficient energy from it’s surroundings.
As a body increases in size, it’s surface area becomes increasingly inadequate to allow the radiated energy in it’s interior to escape without a build up of heat at, and below, the surface. The surface will not radiate the heat or energy outwards as quickly as it is created in the interior. The rate at which energy is radiated from a surface increases rapidly with a resulting increase in surface temperature. This varies as the fourth power of it’s absolute temperature. For example, within a certain temperature range, if the temperature is doubled, the rate at which energy is radiated in the form of photons and soft particles, increases by a factor of 16.
The critical size of such a body will depend on it’s composition. For example, if it contains a high concentration of mildly radioactive substances, this critical size will be less. If the body is hollow, then the dimensions would have to be greater. The red giants, if they are even close to the dimensions claimed, would have to be hollow and have relatively thin shells, otherwise, they would not be red as their surface temperatures would be astronomical.
The actual source of the energy which is finally radiated out into space is the soft particles and photons which are normally radiated by the atoms of the material inside a sun. This is due to the activities of the fundamental particles. Because of the great mass of a sun, an abnormal concentration of these soft particles is always present in the interior. This concentration is greatest near the surface. There is a steady increase in intensity, from the centre toward the outside. This results in a continuous disintegration of a high percentage of those particles near the surface, accompanied by a great increase in temperature, which in turn, results in a greater rate of disintegration, with the release of harder particles which produce the higher temperatures. At the same time, there is an increase in the rate at which the soft particles are created. The temperature will decrease steadily as the centre is approached and any sun will have a relatively cool interior.
The principle that size is the major factor in a celestial body’s ability to radiate is confirmed by the behaviour of very large planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. An application of this principle indicates that bodies of such size should start radiating more energy than they receive from outside sources. Recent determinations indicate that Jupiter and Saturn do, in fact, radiate more energy than they seem to receive from the Sun. A probe showed a surprisingly higher temperature in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere than was formerly believed to exist.
It now becomes apparent that the conventional theory which states that the radiant energy of the Sun is produced by thermonuclear reactions is complete nonsense. One thing to consider is that if this were the case, the Sun’s radiation would be so lethal that no life could exist on any of the planets in the solar system.
Occasionally, throughout the universe, the gradual build up of heat in the interior of suns becomes very much greater, possibly due to the quantity of radioactive elements in the interior caused by transmutation. In such cases, relief valves in the form of sunspots, no longer take care of the excess energy increases and large portions blow apart, releasing astronomical quantities of radiation. After the explosion, the supernova becomes a burnt out body in comparison to it’s former state. Considering the countless billions of stars within our field of vision, and since only a few supernovas have been observed down through history, it is logical to conclude that it is not the fate of the great majority of stars.
One of the phenomena concerning the Sun, which completely baffles all of the scientists, is that it seems to rotate faster at the equator than it does in the higher latitudes. Sunspots in the vicinity of the equator make a revolution about the Sun in less time than those in the higher latitudes. This is an annoying paradox which can’t be pushed aside by these scientists as it is out there for all to observe.
The part of the Sun which we see is a highly fluidic blanket. The region around the Sun’s equator could rotate faster if, and only if, a steady external pull is exerted on that region. Otherwise, internal friction would eventually produce a uniform motion. This means that bodies in orbit near the equator and close to the surface, are generating a high concentration of gravity-inducing radiations. It becomes evident that such bodies could not consist of normal matter and are probably composed of atoms and molecules made up of softer particles which are little affected by the Sun’s radiation. Such bodies could generate a concentration of gravity radiations considerably out of proportion to their masses. Being constructed of this kind of material, they would be practically invisible.
23. Errors have been made in determining the size and distance of planetary bodies. Charles Fort cited many instances of fiascos which belied astronomers’ claims of extreme accuracy in determining stellar and astronomical distances. His revelations did little to enhance their reputations as paragons of integrity.
The principles employed by astronomers in their measurements are essentially the same as those used by surveyors in measuring distances and elevations. However, some surveyors admit that they are unable to determine the height of mountains with any degree of precision and their measurements may be off by as much as 10%. Mr Cater has tested this using an altimeter which was set to zero at sea level and then driven to the top of a mountain at 42o 30’ North latitude, which is supposed to have an elevation of 9,269 feet. The altimeter reading agreed closely with the established elevations of towns along the route ranging from 1,000 to over 4,000 feet. However, at the top of the mountain, the reading was only 8,800 feet. Mr Cater then reset the altimeter to the 9,269 feet attributed to the mountain and retraced his route. At every spot on the return trip, the altimeter consistently indicated elevations more than 400 feet higher than before. Even after several months, the altimeter reading was still more than 400 feet higher than it should be. A similar test was carried out on a mountain with a recorded elevation of 4,078 feet and at the top, the altimeter showed 3,750 feet although it agreed with other established elevations much lower down.
The fact that the altimeter was accurate at all places except the top of the mountain (whose official height was found by triangulation) shows that the methods employed by surveyors and astronomers are far from being accurate. The heights of mountains determined by triangulation will always be considerably more than the true value. There are two factors involved. First, the atmosphere becomes steadily denser as one descends from the top of the mountain. Second, the orgone concentration becomes greater closer to the ground. This means that light rays from a mountain top will be refracted and so appear to be originating from a point well above the top of the mountain. This was also confirmed by a barometric test at the top of Mount Everest which indicates that it is actually 27,500 feet in elevation and not the 29,000 feet previously supposed.
A friend of Mr Cater had his property surveyed to determine the acreage. Afterwards, he checked some of the distances determined by triangulation, using a tape measure, and found significant errors. Refraction of light is clearly throwing triangulation results off. The bulk of refraction effects are caused by orgone concentration. The measurement of mountain elevations taken at different times give different values and this is due to fluctuations in orgone concentrations, which are higher on hot sunny days than on cool cloudy days. Also, they are generally higher during summer months rather than at other times of the year.
The examples above show the unreliability of results obtained by triangulation. Astronomers are faced with additional factors when they try to apply triangulation, such as the Van Allen Radiation Belt, varying concentrations of orgone throughout space, etc. It is not realistic to assume that astronomers can determine planetary and astronomical distances with great precision.
There are several factors which astrophysicists and astronomers have not taken into consideration in their calculations. Perhaps the most important of these is the fact that all electromagnetic radiations including gravity in free space, suffer an attenuation effect which is well above that of the inverse square law. Everywhere in the universe is permeated with soft and hard particles of all kinds. These particles have been radiated by planetary systems for countless ages. This principle is demonstrated by fluctuations in the velocity of light and gravity attenuation.
There is a steady decline in the velocity of light as it travels through space. The reasons for this can be seen from the following considerations. Normal light, or light which has travelled a relatively short distance from it’s source, immediately resumes it’s original velocity after passing through a dense medium such as glass or water. As shown earlier, this is due to the close bunching of photons and soft electrons in any given ray. The concentrations of particles in a ray of light tends to decrease after travelling great distances. The father it travels, the more attenuated the ray becomes. This means that its ability to increase it’s velocity after passing from a medium of a given density to one of a lesser density, will be reduced. This is, of course, due to the scattering and dissipation of particles within the ray as it encounters the conglomeration of particles moving in random directions throughout space.
Since conglomerations of soft particles permeate all known space, and the distribution is not uniform, it follows that light will experience refraction effects, even when passing through free space. Therefore, even under the best conditions, with observations being made beyond the atmosphere, astronomical observations cannot be made with any degree of accuracy. The difficulty is, of course, compounded when the observations are made inside the atmosphere. It is small wonder that Charles Fort found a wealth of evidence that completely debunked the astronomer’s claims of great precision.
The fluctuation in soft particle distribution, along with the refraction effects of the atmosphere, rules out the possibility of averaging out errors by making many observations and applying the mathematical method of least squares. Conventional statistical theory obliterates actual small variations and distorts data by such averaging out processes. The gross errors which crop up despite these methods speak for themselves.
In order to measure the orbital distance of various planets, it was necessary to find the distance of the Earth from the Sun. Originally, this was allegedly found by measuring the angles that two widely separated observation points on the Earth made with the Sun. This is known as the parallax method. The distance to the Sun was calculated from these angles and the distance between the observation points. The size of the Sun could then be determined, and knowing the orbital period of the Earth around the Sun, the Sun’s mass and surface gravity were calculated by applying the false Newtonian concept of gravitation.
More recently, the distance to the Sun, known as the “astronomical unit” was supposedly determined to a high degree of “precision” by measuring the distance of the body Eros by the parallax method when it was closest to the Earth. Knowing the period of Eros’ orbit, the distance to the Sun was calculated by the use of Kepler’s law which states that “the square of the periods of any two planets are proportional to the cube of their mean distances from the Sun”. Since the orbital periods of the planets are known to a reasonable degree of accuracy, most of the other unknowns within the solar system could be calculated by knowledge of the Sun’s alleged mass and surface gravity. By now, it should be apparent that it would be a miracle, or at least, one of the strangest coincidences ever, if the actual distances coincided even approximately with the calculated values.
If the Newtonian concept were valid and the planets were held in orbit by only the effects of the Sun’s surface gravity, then the orbital periods of the planets would be a reliable means of determining planetary distances. Since it has been proven that the concepts on which these calculations were made are false, it can be safely concluded that the size of the orbits is considerably different from what the astronomers claim. As a result of the dissipation effects of radiation, well beyond that which can be expected from the inverse square law, it follows that planetary distances are very much different from the accepted values.
This excessive attenuation of the gravity effects of the Sun is reflected in the alleged rapid increase of orbital distances of the outer planets. The supposed orbital distances are as follows:
Earth: 1.0 astronomical units. Mars: 1.52 (difference 0.52) The asteroids: 2.76 (difference 1.24) Jupiter: 5.2 (difference 2.44) Saturn: 9.58 (difference 4.38) Uranus 19.16 (difference 9.68) and Neptune 30.24 (difference 11.08)It does not follow that the longer the orbital period, the greater the planetary distance. For example, within certain limits, the larger and more massive the planet is beyond a certain critical amount, the slower it must move in order to stay in a given orbit. This is because the total gravity effects of the Sun are unable to permeate and affect the entire mass to the extent that they would with a smaller planet. For example, a planet like Saturn could be placed in a stable orbit inside Earth’s orbit. Yet it would have to move so slowly in it’s orbit that it’s orbital period would be much greater than that of Earth. This means that orbital periods are not a reliable gauge for relative orbital distances.
Although planetary and stellar distances are completely unknown as far as astronomers are concerned, and at this time there are no reliable means available of determining them, the diameters of some of the inner planets, including Jupiter and Saturn, can be calculated far more accurately than any of the other values in the realm of astronomy. The orbital distances of the planetary satellites in proportion to planetary diameters as well as their periods can be accurately determined. The determination of these constants is not affected to any significant degree by the dissipating factors of light already mentioned since a planet and it’s satellites are about the same distance from the Earth. The main factor which makes it possible to approximate the diameter of any of these planets is the knowledge that they have practically the same surface gravity as Earth does.
If a satellite is very small as is the case with the satellites of Mars, a planetary diameter can be calculated with a high degree of accuracy. In fact, Mars is the only planet in the solar system whose diameter can be reliably determined. Astonishingly, Mars turns out to have a diameter of about 11,300 miles. Using unusual methods, Mr Cater has estimated the diameter of the Sun as over 2,500,000 miles and at a distance of about 277,000,000 miles from Earth. The Moon diameter at 5,200 miles at an average distance of 578,000 miles, shell thickness 115 miles and surface gravity 98% that of Earth. With a lesser degree of accuracy, the diameter of Venus is assessed at 23,000 miles and Mercury at over 8,000 miles. Jupiter diameter about 230,000 miles and Saturn about 200,000 miles. It is most unlikely that the accepted distances to the stars are even approximately correct.
24. Hard electrons travel through metals more readily than through non-metals. This indicates that they encounter more extensive positive electrostatic fields between atoms and molecules than in non-metals. At the same time, the atoms in metals are usually more mobile or free to move around than is the case with solid non-metals. This is why the best conductors of electricity are also the best conductors of heat. It is significant that all of the heavier atoms are metals, with the exception of radon which is a gas. This means that such atoms have a higher net positive charge, which causes a stronger mutual repulsion for greater distances on atoms which are not directly connected to each other. This greater extension of the positive zone around such atoms gives them more freedom without breaking the bond which holds them together. The repulsive forces of nearby atoms, increases the mobility of any given atom.
The heavier atoms contain more protons and neutrons bunched together. The outside pressure needed to hold a group of mutually repulsive particles together is independent of the number of particles present.
One might conclude that the heaviest atoms make the best conductors, but this is not the case. Silver, copper and aluminium are the best conductors although their positive field zones are not as extensive, they have less inertia and so are more easily pushed out of the path of a flow of hard electrons. Electrons which flow along conductors are continually colliding with atoms in motion. Therefore, it require a steady application of electromotive force at the ends of the conductor in order to keep them flowing. The atoms of non-metals are more firmly locked into position and therefore do not have that much of a tendency to move out of the way and this is why they make good insulators. Electrons follow the lines of least resistance and so they tend to move on the surface of the conductor where there is less tendency to collide with atoms.
The rules governing the conductivity of soft electrons are somewhat different from those of hard electrons. Soft electrons are enormous when compared to hard electrons. This can be seen when considering that the average diameter of a particle is directly proportional to it’s so-called wavelength of the light comprising it (or inversely proportional to the frequency). The ethers associated with atoms and their fundamental particles are much higher in frequency than those associated with soft particles. This means that atoms will offer little resistance to the passage of soft electrons. However, the magnetic fields resulting from thermal agitation of certain atoms and molecules are involved with ethers which are closer in frequency to the ethers directly associated with soft electrons. Consequently, soft electrons will interact with these fields. This explains why metals in general offer greater resistance to the passage of soft electrons than do non-metals.
The ordinary electrical transformer presents an enigma. The secondary of the transformer continues to pour out or eject electrons from a seemingly unlimited source. There is a limited quantity of free electrons in conductors which should be exhausted quite quickly. The standard argument used to account for the source of current is that free electrons in the circuit supply the electrons and are used over and over again. A simple calculation demonstrates that free electrons in conductors are not the source of electricity.
Consider a wire two millimetres in diameter which carries about 10 amps of current. The electron flow is concentrated near the surface of the wire. Since the electricity in a conductor travels at about the speed of light, such a wire 186,000 miles long would have 10 coulombs of electricity distributed over it’s surface at any instant. The surface area of this wire is 1,840,000 square metres. A parallel plate capacitor having this plate area and a separation of one millimetre, would have a capacity of 0.016 farads. Even with a potential across it’s plates of 100 volts, it would still only be able to concentrate an equivalent of 1.6 coulombs, and a good part of this electrostatic charge would be due to the displacement of the electrons and protons of the atoms. This voltage is more than enough to concentrate all of the free electrons on the surface of the plates. Similarly, all of the free electrons in the wire example would be involved if the current were maintained with 100 volts. Of course, a wire this long would have too much resistance to carry any appreciable current with 100 volts, but this has nothing to do with the argument just given. As a matter of fact, even 6 volts is far more than enough to produce a current of 10 amps in a wire of 2 mm diameter. Therefore, there aren’t enough free electrons in any conductor to supply any appreciable current. This means that the source of electrons in current flow is not coming from free electrons in the conductor. The conclusion is therefore that the hard electrons somehow manage to get through the insulation of the conductor and flow into the wire from outside.
By the law of action and reaction, since a current has inertia, any change in the primary current of a transformer produces a force in the opposite direction in the secondary. This reactive force produces a disturbance of the ethers which produce the voltage or Electromotive Force as a result of increased ether bombardment. The EMF induced in the secondary winding of the transformer, creates a temporary electric void in the wire which draws all kinds of negative charges to the wire. The softer electrons quickly penetrate the insulation and stop at the surface of the wire as they do not travel as readily through a hard electron conductor. These softer electrons absorb most of the electrostatic forces in the insulation which impede the flow of hard electrons, allowing the hard electrons to pass through the insulation and enter the wire.
Electrical charges, composed of photons in nearly all the frequency ranges, permeate all space, since they are continually radiated by stars throughout the universe. They are no easily detected as they are in the form of conglomerates with the harder particles residing inside the softer ones. The resulting combinations are highly penetrating and it takes something like a voltage induced in a conductor to separate the harder particles from the softer ones. The performance of a transformer can be greatly impaired by completely shielding the secondary winding with a good conductor of electricity such as copper or pure aluminium. This is because the shield tends to impede the flow of soft particles to the secondary. This effect has been verified by experiment.
The terms “EMF” and “voltage” need clarification. The true nature of the phenomena associated with these terms has never been fully understood. All that has been known is that if a conductor is exposed to an EMF, a flow of electricity is produced. Also, voltage is associated with the amount of energy or work which a current is capable of producing. An EMF of a given value can induce a current with a definite voltage. The voltage produced is directly proportional to the EMF impressed on the conductor. Also, the energy of the current is directly proportional to the voltage. The amperage of a current is a measure of the number of electrons passing through each segment of a conductor per second. Since wattage, or the total kinetic energy of this current flow is equal to the amperage multiplied by the voltage, it follows that the amperage is also directly proportional to the energy of the current flow. Therefore, Voltage is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the electrons flowing along the conductor. This in turn, is directly proportional to the square of the average velocity of the electrons. This simple definition of voltage is sadly lacking in all standard textbooks.
An EMF induces an accelerating force on an electron. What is the nature of this force? Basically, there are two methods of producing an EMF. One is by subjecting the conductor to a fluctuating magnetic field, and the other is by exposing the conductor to a difference of potential, such as connecting it between the opposite poles of a battery. In that instance, one battery pole has a negative charge while the opposite pole is positive. The flow of electrons is the result of an electron concentration at one point tending to flow to an area where there is a shortage.
The EMF is produced by direct electrostatic force, which in turn, has a dual nature. There is the tendency for negative charges to be attracted to positive charges, and then there is also the mutual repulsion between negative charges. The voltage attained is directly proportional to the difference of potential existing between the poles of that battery. The difference of potential is equal to the kinetic energy gained by the electrons in moving from one potential to the other.
The EMF produced by a fluctuating magnetic field gives the same results but the process is different. When a conductor is subjected to a fluctuating magnetic field, as with the secondary winding of a transformer, the “free” electrons of the conductor and the outer electrons of the atoms which are not as intimately associated with the atoms, are exposed to differential ether bombardments. It is equivalent to an electrostatic force. When a magnetic field changes, the change does not take place simultaneously throughout that volume of space occupied by the field but it progresses from one portion to another. This creates differential electrostatic ether particle bombardments on electrons within the field. When a conductor cuts magnetic lines as with an AC generator, the electrons are subjected to the same conditions experienced by electrons moving between the poles of a magnet. The accelerating force will be in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the electrons in the conductor are found to move.
If there were even a small fraction of the free electrons existing in the matter as is believed by our physicists, the negative charge effects of matter would be so great that these bodies would be unable to get close to each other. Much of the charge on capacitors comes from outside the capacitor, as is the case with the flow of electricity in conductors. Actually, free electrons in a conductor are practically non-existent. Hard electrons which are not a part of the atoms are captured by soft particles which permeate matter. The soft particles release hard electrons when subjected to the EMF in a current, or the voltage across the plates of a capacitor.
The current in a straight wire is evenly distributed along the surface where the electron flow encounters the least resistance. The released hard electrons which are directly affected by the EMF, tend to move as a unit partially held together by mutual magnetic attraction. This unit leaves a temporary void behind it which is quickly filled by surrounding hard electrons. Many such groups are started almost simultaneously in a conductor at about the speed of light, although the electrons themselves travel at a much lower velocity. When an EMF is applied to a conductor, something akin to the domino effect is set up in the ethers. This effect travels at the speed of light since it is produced in a similar manner.
That the source of electricity flowing in power lines as well as that produced by generators, comes from soft particles which permeate and surround the area, has been proven during auroral displays. When aurora activity is unusually high, transformers in Canada have been known to burn out and even explode. At the same time, increase of current flow in power lines has been great enough to trip circuit breakers as far south as Texas. As explained earlier, the concentration of soft electrons in the atmosphere is greatly increased during auroral phenomena. Some areas receive higher concentrations than others at the same latitude.
A loop of wire or a coil offers impedance to alternating current. This property is known as “inductance”. Since a single loop of wire has inductance, it follows that the effect can be explained in terms of one loop. Electrons tend to travel along the surface of a conductor as that is the path of least resistance. The major source of this electricity is the high concentration of soft electrons which gather around a conductor and permeate the material. This is due to the relatively high positive charge of the conductor. The greatest concentration is found at the surface and a short distance below the surface. When an EMF is applied to the conductor, free electrons are set in motion. During this process, soft electrons concentrated at and just below the surface tend to disintegrate and release more hard electrons. This is enhanced by the concentration of the soft electrons, which is turn causes an agitation of the soft particles, causing them to become highly unstable.
In a straight wire, most of this disintegration and nearly all of the electron flow takes place below the surface. This condition greatly shortens the mean free path of the electrons and the flow stops immediately after the applied EMF is shut off. Consequently, an alternating current will encounter the same ohmic resistance in a straight wire as will a direct current. However, the situation is different when the conductor is looped.
When an EMF is applied to a loop, the free or released hard electrons below the surface are forced to the outside by centrifugal force, whence a still greater disintegration of soft electrons occurs because the greatest concentration is at the surface. The mean free path of the electrons is greatly increased and the flow continues for a brief period after the EMF travelling in the direction of the current flow ceases. When the EMF continues in the opposite direction as in the case of an alternating current, the force must oppose the momentum of the electron flow still continuing in the opposite direction to that of the new EMF direction. It follows that this impedance will be directly proportional to the number of turns and to the frequency of the AC. It is logical to assume that the deceleration rate of the electron flow is a constant when the EMF is zero. This means that the more quickly that the EMF is applied in the opposite direction, the higher the velocity of flow that will be encountered. It will be a linear function.
It would now seem evident that when the AC is rectified of has been changed to a pulsed DC, the coil will produce an increase in amperage where a straight wire will not. Experiments have confirmed this. It was found that the input amperage of a current was greatly increased after it passed through a coil. The increase was greatest during the initial stage of the applied EMF and soon dropped to a lower value as the concentration of soft electrons around the wire was reduced. It follows that a coil will offer impedance only to an AC current. It follows that pulsed DC has numerous advantages over AC. It can be used to operate transformers as well as AC without suffering impedance.
A steady direct current experiences the same resistance in a coil as it does in a straight wire of the same length. The fluctuating EMF produces extreme agitation of the soft electrons around and inside the wire, resulting in the disintegration of a large percentage of them, and the release of a high concentration of hard electrons. This does not occur during the steady flow of direct current. During the initial application of DC there is a surge of additional current during the build-up of the EMF. When the current is shut off, there will be a momentary surge of current in the opposite direction. The excess of electrons on the surface of the conductor and in the coil will naturally flow towards the void outside the coil and in the opposite direction to which the current was flowing. The concepts just outlined can be applied when building a self-sustaining electric generator.
When an alternating current is applied to a coil, the EMF must overcome the impedance each time the EMF changes direction. The greatest amount of resistance occurs at the beginning of each change and then steadily decreases as the current builds up. The resistance will be at a minimum when the current reaches it’s maximum. With AC, the EMF changes direction very frequently and so the maximum resistance is encountered for a high percentage of the time.
The flow of electrons in a wire results in a circular magnetic flow around that wire. As mentioned previously, the magnetic effects between electrons moving together tend to cancel each other out. They are drawn together and the resulting ethers encompass the entire group. This also occurs between adjacent wire segments in a coil. The magnetic effects are cancelled out between the segments and a continuous ether flow, encompassing the entire coil, perpendicular to the direction of the current flow, will occur. The solenoid will then behave like a bar magnet with continuous lines of force.
The Earth’s atmosphere produces geomagnetism in much the same way that a solenoid produces a magnetic field. Changes in the atmosphere move along with the Earth in a circular motion. Although there is little motion of the charges relative to the surface, a magnetic field is still created. Magnetic lines, or ethers, flow from the South magnetic region to the North magnetic region as a result of these rotating charges.
25. Despite the fact that our illustrious physicists have managed to develop as highly a destructive device as a nuclear bomb, they still have no concept of the nature and source of the energy released after a detonation. As with all other well-known phenomena, they try to create the illusion that they comprehend and have explained it. As a matter of fact, academic science has not yet supplied satisfactory explanations for any of the simplest and most common everyday phenomena. The energy released by nuclear devices is explained away by stating that it is a conversion of matter into energy in accordance with the false Einstein relation E = mC2. Many readers, especially those steeped in orthodoxy, may be shocked to learn there is no conversion of mass into energy during such a process, nor by any process in which energy is released! The tremendous heat produced in a nuclear blast means that an abnormal quantity of hard electrons were suddenly released by the complete disintegration of all the soft electrons within the area of the explosion. The intense light that accompanies the blast is the result of the photons set free by the disintegration of those soft electrons.
The key to the triggering of the reaction is the neutron. As indicated earlier, a neutron is equivalent to a collapsed hydrogen atom, and yet it is more than this. A hydrogen atom has a strong net positive charge, while the neutron has no net charge. This means that a neutron has collected far more hard electrons than a hydrogen atom. Since a neutron has no charge, it cannot add to the weight of an atom, as is commonly believed.
The concepts introduced in this treatise render all of the old beliefs concerning atomic structure invalid. The weight of an atom is dependent almost entirely on the number of orbital electrons and the number of protons in it’s nucleus. This will be discussed in more detail later. There is an exception or two to the above rule in the case of certain radioactive elements where the presence of neutrons can actually reduce the weight of an atom. An interchange of excess electrons between protons and neutrons within the nucleus, and thus transformations of protons into neutrons and vice versa, can occur. The neutrons greatly outnumber the protons in the heavier atoms, especially those that are radioactive. During the interchanges between neutrons and protons, excess neutrons disintegrate into protons and hard electrons are ejected from some of the atoms. This results in a transformation of such atoms. Simultaneously, the tremendous interactions between electrons released in this manner as well as from the disintegration of soft electrons in the vicinity cause the higher ethers to be disturbed, ultimately resulting in the production of gamma rays.
The isotope of the more common uranium 238 atom known as U235 is lighter yet it is fissionable and more radioactive than the uranium 238. It is lighter because it supposedly has fewer neutrons than the ordinary uranium atom. The opposite is actually the case. The U235 having more neutrons is more radioactive. The greater interactions within the nucleus result in more hard electrons being released, which reduces the overall positive charge of it’s nucleus.
There is a continuous interchange of ejected protons transforming back into neutrons and vice versa among the U235 atoms. A similar but less violent interchange takes place among the atoms of U238. A low percentage of the U238 atoms receive more than their share of these interchanges and thus transform into U235 atoms. Most of the hard electrons released which contribute to such interchanges and transformations is the result of the disintegration of soft electrons which permeate the atoms. It follows that the main contributing factor of radioactivity is the presence of soft electrons which house the hard electrons! Therefore, if the soft electron concentration throughout the vicinity of a radioactive substance is reduced, it will lose much of it’s radioactivity. By now, it has no doubt occurred to the reader, that a Reich cloud-buster pointed at a radioactive material would cause it to lose it’s radioactivity! This has been proven to be the case. For example, a glowing piece of radium stops radiating when it is placed in front of a cloud-buster.
The source of the energy released during a nuclear blast is now becoming clear. When a fissionable material like U235 or plutonium is bombarded with additional neutrons, the increased activity in the nuclei causes even the most stable soft electrons in the vicinity to disintegrate. A chain reaction of soft electron disintegration in areas well beyond the confines of the fissionable material results. All of the hard electrons and protons originally camouflaged by the soft particles are suddenly released. A tremendous gamma ray production also occurs. Adequate quantities of fissionable materials suddenly brought together can result in a sufficient increase of neutron bombardment of the interior atoms to produce such a result. It is known as the ‘critical mass’. The proper fusion of hydrogen atoms can also cause enough soft electron disintegration to produce a similar result. It is now apparent there is no conversion of mass into energy during the process. All of the fundamental particles of the atoms involved remain intact. In fact, there is even more mass following a blast than there was previously, as a result of the additional hard electrons and protons released. Once again, it is obvious that the Theory of Relativity is in no way concerned.
The monstrous hoax fostered on the public by the Defence Department of the Government, now becomes more than obvious. A Reich cloud-buster can completely deactivate nuclear devices for great distances by drawing away the soft electron concentration from the vicinity of such device. In fact, a cloud-buster can be used for downing fleets of planes carrying nuclear weapons. Combustion is also dependent on soft electron concentrations which of course includes jet engines. Therefore jet engines or missiles cannot function in an area affected by a cloud-buster. The fact that a simple cloud-buster can deactivate a nuclear reactor from a great distance has been proven on numerous occasions. For example, during the time Reich was carrying out intensive experiments with a cloud-buster in Arizona in the early 1950s, a large reactor several hundred miles to the southeast quit functioning. This means that hundreds of billions of tax dollars are being funnelled every year to support a multibillion dollar nuclear industry and other related industries which are rendered obsolete by the device used by Reich.
It is evident that the proper use of the cloud-buster could throw modern warfare back to the stone age. Obviously the drawing of soft particles away from any group would completely enervate each individual and even turn him into a block of frozen flesh. Although a cloud-buster could not completely deactivate a particle beam weapon it could bring down any craft carrying such a device before it could get into position. The potential of the cloud-buster is perhaps greater than even Reich himself realized. Since heat is transferred from one body to another by soft electrons which release harder electrons, the cloud-buster can be used as a highly efficient refrigeration system by drawing soft electrons away from a body. It has been made apparent that this simple device can render present fire fighting techniques obsolete. By use of the cloud-buster in the proper manner, the loss of life and property from fire and storms could become a thing of the past. It also provides dramatic proof of the validity of many of the new concepts introduced in this treatise.
Radioactivity was the subject of a ridiculous, if not amusing, fiasco more than two decades ago when two physicists, Lee and Yang, received the Nobel Prize in 1957. The incident, which was given wide publicity, concerned an error in the parity principle. The parity principle has been defined as "a mathematical concept impossible to define in physical terms". How such a concept could have any bearing on physical reality is not made clear. Generally, anything relating to reality can be defined in terms of reality, which is in conformity with the Law of Cause and Effect.
Incredibly, an experiment was devised to test the validity of this great revelation. It was based on the idea that a radioactive substance should eject more particles in one preferred direction, than in any other. Radioactive cobalt was chosen. It was cooled down to near absolute zero and exposed to a powerful magnetic field produced by a solenoid, in order to align the nuclei. Another physicist, a Dr. Wu, had devoted six months of hard work setting up the experiment. Indeed, it was found that more particles were ejected out of one pole of the solenoid than the other. Which pole was it? Of course, it was the pole out of which the magnetic lines flowed. Naturally, the experiment merely demonstrated that particles tend to travel down magnetic lines of force. The excess of particles that came out of the pole were those barely ejected from the atom. They had such a low initial velocity that, regardless of what direction they happened to be travelling initially, the magnetic field would dictate their final direction of travel.
Lee and Yang were accorded every scientific honour, including the Nobel Prize, as a result of this experiment. Instead of giving them the Nobel Prize, the awarding of an Oscar would have been more appropriate. Accompanying the extensive publicity given this comedy act was a photo appearing in a prominent magazine showing one of the recipients pointing to a grotesque mathematical equation containing over 100 terms! He was allegedly explaining the reasoning behind their great revelation.
The great nuclear scare scam should rate as the biggest lie of the century. This fabrication is so colossal even Mr Cater is somewhat embarrassed to admit he was also taken in by it, as everyone else was, except those directly involved in the conspiracy but Mr Cater never questioned it as he had other universally accepted beliefs. The long-hidden truth is this: radiation from radioactive substances is relatively harmless! One can actually swim in water from so-called high level nuclear waste, drink the water and actually thrive on it. Also one can handle pure U235 and even plutonium (the fuel for A-bombs) with bare hands all day long, and suffer no ill effects. Of course excessive exposure to this radiation can be inimical, as can occur from any other type of radiation such as sunlight. The effects, however, are immediate and not long-lasting if the source of the trouble is removed. The popular belief that mutations can result from this radiation that effects future generations, is complete nonsense. A study of the effects on the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bear this out. The only mutations are immediate damage to cells and subsequent malfunctions from ultra-high concentrations.
For the above revelations we are indebted to a courageous and dedicated individual who worked for 35 years in the nuclear industry. He was intimately involved in every aspect of the production of nuclear fuels and the building of reactors. He is Galen Windsor, of Richland, Washington. The so-called lethal nuclear radiations are relatively harmless, with very limited penetration. In 1987, Galen had already lectured in 77 different cities over a two-year period. His credentials are impressive. He has worked in every major reactor decommissioning project in America. He was involved in the analytical process inventory control, which was responsible for measuring and controlling the nuclear fuel inventory for these projects. He has few peers in this field and all of them agree with him but are afraid to speak out. He is one of the world's greatest authorities of nuclear radiation measurement.
He and others did plutonium processing using their bare hands until radiation monitors were installed at every reactor. Rules were laid down as to the amount of exposure to radiation that must not be exceeded. If the rules were not followed, the worker disappeared and was never seen again by anyone. The reason is obvious. If word leaked out that radioactive materials below critical mass were harmless, then there would be widespread pilfering of such products. The Iie that radioactive materials can be handled only with extreme safety precautions must be maintained at all costs. The high-level disposal act of 1982 calls for the permanent disposal of the so-called high level waste 3,000 feet underground. This high level waste consists of reusable uranium fuel and contains useful metal isotopes. Every ton of it is worth about 10 million US dollars.
Enough has been collected to pay off the National Debt. Portland General Electric owns the Trojan reactor and had a storage basin problem. Windsor offered to take all of their spent fuel off their hands. He would ship it, store it, and do everything that needed to be done at no expense to them, if they would give it to him. They told him "Go to Hell, Galen Windsor - we value it more than plutonium or gold. We are going to play the plutonium future ourselves".
Windsor was taken to California in 1965 to help design and build a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. After it was built in 1973, a presidential order was issued which said the plant was not to be run. At that time, they had 170 metric tons of spent fuel stored in the basin. Also, the maximum allowed exposure was further reduced by a factor of 10. This was the beginning of Windsor's rebellion against "The Establishment". He began swimming in a 660,000 gallon pool containing the spent fuel. The radioactive materials it contained were enough to maintain a water temperature of 100° F and the water would glow with a bluish light in the dark. He discovered that the tank provided good drinking water.
Windsor was also asked about what was in the burial sites of so-called low-level nuclear waste. The answer was that there are no nuclear wastes, only materials produced in a reactor to be recovered and used beneficially. Low-level waste is an excuse for a Federally-mandated non-inspectable disposal system, so that organised crime can get rid of any evidence they want, and that it can never be dug up again. Also, so that no one finds out whose bodies are in those drums. This is what is contained in barrels that are dropped in the ocean.
Windsor also stated, (and he was in a position to know), that in 1947 the United States sent to the USSR all the necessary materials and technology to build A-bombs! This was under the approval of President Truman. In 1949, they exploded their first A-bomb. Later, the Rosenbergs were executed for allegedly turning over nuclear "secrets" to the Russians.
According to Windsor, by 1975 large reactors no longer had a future. They are being phased out. The notorious Three-Mile Island incident was no accident. It did no damage and no one was harmed. But, it did impress upon the public the alleged danger of reactors. Windsor advocated the use of many small reactors systematically distributed. They could be not only used for producing adequate quantities of electricity, but for obviating refrigeration of packaged foods. When briefly exposed to the radiation from such reactors they will keep indefinitely. A Federal energy cartel is the reason that the effective use of many smaller reactors is not implemented. They control the amount of electricity, the availability and the price. Windsor stated that no reactors have been built correctly. In any event, reactors can in no way, match the use of self-sustaining electric generators for electricity, but their use in preserving food is intriguing.
From the above, it becomes obvious that recent publicity concerning the danger of radon gas in homes is another monstrous hoax! It could be mixed with oxygen in sizeable quantities and breathed for long periods without damage.
The question now arising is why are the radiations from radioactive sources relatively harmless? Three types of radiation emanate from them: alpha, beta and gamma rays. Alpha rays consist of helium nuclei or a small group of protons, neutrons and electrons. The number of neutrons and protons are still unknown despite the vaunted claims of nuclear physicists. Since they are totally ignorant as to their true nature, the nature of gravity and soft particle physics, they have no means of determining such values. Beta particles are the hard electrons of ordinary electricity, and gamma rays are negative charges comprised of ether particles in the same range as that of hard electrons. As such, they have no more penetrating ability than a stream of hard electrons and are no more damaging than the hard electrons when they do penetrate. Since they are comprised of the same ethers as atoms and molecules, it follows that they will not penetrate matter as readily as softer particles. This leaves the alpha rays. It has already been shown that positive charges are inimical to living tissues since they tend to absorb the negative charges living organisms require. However, alpha particles also have little penetrating ability for the same reasons as given above, and quickly absorb electrons to become harmless helium gas. Windsor gave demonstrations of such facts at his lectures by use of a Geiger counter.
The capture of large quantities of alpha particles by high concentrations of orgone energy is another matter. Reich termed it deadly orgone energy. The orgone enters the body and releases alpha particles throughout vital organs and produces what is known as radiation sickness. Reich and his assistants had this experience. When the source of the trouble was removed they quickly recovered. Occasionally, deadly orgone can remain in the body and at later periods, release the positive charges at various times, thus causing severe after-effects. This problem can be alleviated by treatments inside orgone accumulators or pyramids after being exposed to the deadly orgone. This is what Reich and his helpers did.
Galen Windsor also stated that the bomb dropped on Hiroshima contained 20 pounds of U235. The one exploded over Nagasaki had 2.5 kilograms or about 5 pounds of plutonium. This values were jealously guarded secrets for a long time. Windsor is likely the first one who has dared reveal it to the public. The author was acquainted with the late Stanislaw Ulam, a mathematician who had calculated the critical mass of these elements for bombs while working on the Manhattan project. It was a deep, dark secret and he would have parted with his life before he would reveal anything so sacred. The degree of the hang-up officialdom has on secrecy is of a magnitude difficult to comprehend, and the steps they have taken to insure it is even more mind-boggling. It is so infantile and childish that there are no words in the English language to describe it adequately.
Radioactive substances such as plutonium, produce their own heat and the larger the mass, the higher the temperature of the mass. This follows identically, the same principle by which the Sun generates it’s energy or the ratio between mass and surface area. The essential difference is that plutonium can do in a few cubic inches what ordinary matter does in a ball 2,500,000 miles in diameter!
Interestingly enough, Windsor looks about 30 years younger than his chronological age would indicate. He also stated he always sustained a healthy tan from his work with radioactive substances. It is significant that Reich and his assistant had a similar experience in their work with orgone energy. It is clear Windsor and Reich were exposed to the same energies, high concentrations of soft electrons. The constant exposure to high orgone concentrations during his working hours is what has kept Galen Windsor young. Of course the high orgone concentrations was produced by soft electrons clustering around the radioactive substances which produced a constant flow of positive charges.
You may wonder why Windsor and certain others could handle radioactive substances with impunity while others have either died or suffered from serious physical problems after being exposed to the radiation. As mentioned earlier, radioactive materials radiate highly positively charged particles which are extremely inimical. Some are absorbed by soft electrons and become DOR (deadly orgone energy). They can enter the body and remain for long periods before disintegrating and releasing the deadly particles. These particles are very sluggish when compared to negative particles including soft electrons.
The victims of radioactive fallout are not exposed for any significant period to high concentrations of positive charges. Also, the area of exposure is very large; consequently, the Coanda effect does not come into play and there is no rush of orgone energy to alleviate the situation as was the case with Windsor when he was directly exposed to ultra high concentrations of radioactive materials. Any victim of radioactive contamination can be cured by being exposed to high concentrations of orgone for extended periods as was Reich and his assistants after experiencing radioactive sickness. They had received a heavy dose of DOR as mentioned earlier. Being exposed to high concentrations of radioactivity is equivalent to being placed in an orgone accumulator.
This is only a summary of part of Mr Cater’s book which has 586 pages. A number of topics are not even mentioned here. Mr Cater also speaks of:
The properties of Helium at low temperatures.
Mystery spots on Earth, including the famous Oregon Vortex.
The origin of the Van Allen Radiation Belt.
The research of William Reich.
The Oranur Experiment.
The Reich Cloud Buster (which is also a weapon of major power).
The nature of Radioactivity and Nuclear devices.
Three practical Free-Energy devices.
The great potential of crystals in the obtaining of Free-Energy.
The work of Nikola Tesla with Free-Energy.
The Searle Effect and many other topics.
If you wish to buy a copy of his book, it is supposedly available at these two outlets: here or in the UK here.
So, having absorbed some of what Mr Cater has to say, do you feel that you have been treated fairly, and the true scientific details presented to you as part of your general education?